Cell Cycle Regulation and Cancer.docx - The Eukaryotic Cell...

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The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle is Regulated by a Molecular Control System Evidence for Cytoplasmic Signals Molecules present in cytoplasm during S or M phase control progression of those phases Checkpoints of the Cell Cycle Control System Cell cycle control system : cyclically operating set of molecules in cell that triggers and coordinates key events in cell cycle Checkpoint : control point where stop+ go-ahead signals regulate cycle G 1 checkpoint (most important), S (less important), G 2 checkpoint, M checkpoint G 1 checkpoint= “restriction point” If stop, cell may exit cycle and switch to G 0 phase : nondividing state Most human cells in this state If go ahead, will most likely pass all other checkpoints Cyclins : proteins that regulate cell cycle Work with kinases (enzymes) M checkpoint: cell will not begin anaphase (separation of sister chromatids) until all chromosomes are attached to spindle fibers
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