LG9.ppt - Malaria • Malaria has long been recognized as...

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Malaria Malaria has long been recognized as an important parasitic disease of humans, having been described by the early Egyptians in the third millennium B.C., Despite the introduction of control programs in many parts of the world over the past few decades, the impact of malaria on human populations continues to increase. Recent estimates suggest, (1) that 1.5 billion persons live in areas of the world where malaria is an endemic disease, (2) that the number of infected humans exceeds 500,000,000, and, (3) that 1-3 million persons die each year, including about 1 million children under 5 years old (3,000 per day).
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Malaria’s Range (cross hatching) Science : Volume 289, Number 5485 (2000), p. 1763
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LINKS BETWEEN MALARIA AND POVERTY Poverty affects malaria . Communities with low incomes, limited education and poor access to health care are least able to engage in malaria control activities. Malaria affects poverty . In poor households, a greater proportion of income is likely to be spent on malaria treatment than in affluent households, malaria illness causes absenteeism from work and school, poor scholastic performance, lack of labor for cultivation, and a decline in child care, etc. Hence, a negative spiral can develop with malaria causing and deepening poverty which, in turn, exacerbates inequalities in societies.
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General Malaria Pathology …more later. Host (human) inflammatory response resulting in severe chills and fever, paroxysms , Anemia due to loss of red blood cells, Recurrence of paroxysms at periodic intervals.
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These single celled eukaryotes have heteroxenous life cycles with both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, Humans, Mosquitos. Macro- and micro- gametes develop independently and the resultant zygote is motile and is called the Ookinete . Causative Agent: Plasmodium sp. (Protozoa: Haemosporina)
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Malarial Plasmodium There are four important species that infect humans, causing malaria; * P. vivax - benign tertian malaria - accounts for ~43% of cases * P. falciparum - malignant tertian malaria accounts for ~50% cases * P. malariae - quartan malaria - accounts for ~7% of cases * P. ovale - mild tertian malaria - accounts for < 1% of cases.
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P. vivax - benign tertian malaria The disease gets its name from the time between paroxysms , which occur every 48 hours, from the Roman custom to call the first day of the event day 1 and therefore 48 hours later would be day 3, Tertian malaria accounts for 43% of all cases of malaria. This species is mainly found in Asia and relapses have been known to occur up to 8 years after the first infection due to the presence of a dormant exoerythrocytic stage also known as hypnozoites. P. vivax are only capable of infecting red blood cells via genetically determined receptor sites. Only people exhibiting these antigenic sites are susceptible to the disease.
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