ILO Mod 10.docx - Wang 1 Ziyu Wang PSY320H/320X YA NOBA Conditioning and Learning Observational Learning 1 Explain what observational learning is and

ILO Mod 10.docx - Wang 1 Ziyu Wang PSY320H/320X YA NOBA...

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Wang 1 Ziyu Wang PSY320H/320X YA NOBA Conditioning and Learning Observational Learning 1. Explain what observational learning is and how it differs from classical and operant conditioning. Observational learning refers to the learning that results from watching the behavior of other parties, for example, dogs watching how other dogs behave and figuring out slowly how they do it. It is based on the social learning theory, which held that one can learn novel responses simply by observing the behaviors of others. Observational learning is more of vicarious conditioning which involves the learning of behaviors by watching others acquire their responses through classical or operant conditioning. This is different from classical conditioning which involves the pairing of a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus that already leads to a reflex response, after which the new stimulus becomes conditioned to evoke a similar response by itself. It also differs from operant conditioning which involves how a party operates on its environment in a particular way, whereby the behavior it engages is instrumental to the achievement of some outcome. 1. Discuss the importance of social models on learning. In learning, social models are important because the ones learning to act in different situations observe what the social models are doing, and how they are acting. 2. Describe the four parts of the observational learning process, and then evaluate whether dogs are able to engage in each part of the process. The first step in the observational learning process – attention, includes the paying of attention to what the social model is doing so as to be able to learn. The second step, retention, involves the one learning retaining the behavior he or she has observed in their memory. After this step is the initiation part, whereby the learner is supposed to have the ability to initiate or execute the behavior he or she has learned. The final part, motivation, involves the observer being psyched up to engage in observational learning. 3. Explain what vicarious reinforcement is and how it played a role in the BoBo doll experiment. Vicarious reinforcement has a certain effect on how behavior is produced by observers. In the BoBo doll experiment, both boys and girls were noted to produce more aggressive acts after they watched the film which had the model being rewarded. Boys were also noted to perform more aggressive acts than girls, and this difference between the behavior of boys and girls could show how the effect of aggression is mediated by cognitive factors. Dog as a model for studying conspecific and heterospecific social learning 4. Explain what social learning is.
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