APWH Final Study Guide - APWH Study Guide Human...

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APWH Study Guide: Human Transformations: The Dawn of History: What can the study of world history teach about what humans are and how they think and interact? What three distinctive traits of human beings distinguish them from animals? How did humans of the Paleolithic era adapt to different environments? What five trends in world history began with the Neolithic revolution and extend to the present day? Early Humans on the Move Why did the earliest Paleolithic migrants from Africa spread eastward into South Asia and not westward into Europe and northward into North Asia? How did the gender-based division of labor within Paleolithic hunter-gatherer groups lend itself to an egalitarian society? What tools and adaptations enabled Homo sapiens to inhabit areas of the world with more severe climatic conditions? What archaeological discovery most convincingly suggests that Paleolithic hominids held religious beliefs? The Neolithic Revolution What advantages did hunter-gatherers gain by making the transition to an agricultural or pastoral economy? What kinds of tools characterized the Neolithic Era? Why did agricultural societies develop into civilizations while pastoral and
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hunter-gatherer societies did not? How did environmental differences influence the economic choices of Neolithic societies in the Old and New Worlds? What effects did agriculture and pastoralism have on the natural environment? How did abundance lead to the rise of Neolithic cities? What sort of social structure began to develop within Neolithic agricultural societies? The Birth of Civilization On what continents did early civilizations develop? What distinguishes a civilization from a culture or a network of societies? What factors enabled the earliest agricultural civilizations to overcome the challenges of their environments? How did the new technology of irrigation affect social development within the Mesopotamian civilization? Social and Economic Structures in Early Civilizations What political, social, and religious institutions did the early river civilizations develop in common? How did the specialization of labor influence the rise of social and political structures in Old World Neolithic civilizations? How did the gender equality of women in Mesopotamia compare with that of women in Egypt? Early Civilizations in the Middle East What were the geographic locations, fundamental characteristics, and historical developments of the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations?
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What were the similarities and differences between the social, economic, political, religious, and cultural spheres of these civilizations? Which record-keeping strategies did these civilizations use? What were the key features of the Egyptian and Mesopotamian cultures, according to ideas in the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Book of the Dead?
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