Patho Case Study.docx - Amber Brayer Pathophysiology Kelley...

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Amber Brayer Pathophysiology Kelley Obringer 9 October 2017 Case Study, Chapter 21, Control of Respiratory Function Ms. S is a 76-year-old female client who is admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of pneumonia. Upon examination, you notice a barrel chest and diminished breath sounds in the bases. Her arterial CO 2 is 55 mm Hg, and further questioning reveals that she has a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). She has smoked two packs of cigarettes per day for the past 50 years. (Learning Objectives: 2, 3, 15, and 17) 1. How does her history of smoking increase her risk for pneumonia? - Pneumonia describes the inflammation/infection of the parenchymal structures of the lungs such as the alveoli and bronchioles. When you breathe, the air moves down through your airways and into your alveoli and from the alveoli, oxygen goes into your blood while carbon dioxide moves out of your blood. So therefore, when you have pneumonia, your alveoli get inflamed (irritated and swollen) and filled with fluid. This makes it difficult for her to breathe and causes couching to occur. Common symptoms of both pneumonia and a heavy smoker is persistent coughing. Therefore, Ms. S’s possible history of COPD and smoking together have increased her chances for pneumonia. Also because of her smoking, that can be a factor to the increase swelling and irritation. With her heavy
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