Psychology Midterm - Chapter 1 1 What is a hypothesis and...

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Chapter 1 1. What is a hypothesis and how is it different from a theory? A hypothesis is a tentative explanation to a question about you or how something happens. A theory is a proven hypothesis 2. What is the definition of Psychology? Psychology refers to the scientific study of the mind. 3. What does a scientific theory explain? A scientific theory explains some aspect of the natural world that is constantly supported by evidence over time. 4. What is an empirical method of study, versus a subjective method of study? An empirical method of study is based on observation including experimentation A subjective method of study is a bias or introspective type of study 5. What are the fundamentals of Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory? Freud believed that many of his patients problems derived from the unconscious mind 6. What do behaviorists study? Behaviorists study learned behavior and its interactions with different qualities of the organism
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7. Describe the basic premise of Humanism. Humanism focuses on human control, intentionality, and true predisposition to do good. 8. What is Abraham Maslow, most famous for? Maslow’s hierarchy of needs 9. Describe the steps of the scientific method. Identify a problem: Form a hypothesis: Collect data: Organize data: Form conclusion: 10. What is critical thinking? 11. Distinguish classical conditioning from operant conditioning. 12. What are our basic survival needs, according to Maslow? 13. What does developmental psychology study?
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14. What does cognitive psychology study? 15. What are the Five Factor Model Dimensions in Personality theory? 16. What influences perception? 17. Why is recent research in developmental psychology focusing on seniors? 18.What does social psychology study? How people influence and relate to one another 19. What is clinical psychology? a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders 20. Define personality trait. A personality trait is a consistent way a person processes his/her environment and his/her role in it
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21. What is the Biopsychosocial model of health? 22. What did Stanley Milgram’s obedience research demonstrate? Chapter 2 1. What is an illusory correlation? When there is a perceived relationship between two things that does not exist. For
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example: ice cream sales and crime rate 2. Differentiate a theory from a hypothesis. Theory: well developed set of ideas that propose an explanation for observed phenomena Hypothesis: testable prediction about how the world will behave if out idea is correct 3. What kind of research is Jane Goodall most famous for? Naturalistic observation through chimpanzees 4. What are some confounding variables in research?
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