September 17 (students).pdf - Biol 1020 A06 September 17...

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Biol 1020 A06 September 17
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Structural Geometric Enantiomers Isomers of organic molecules C 4 H 10 Structural : Same molecular formula but different arrangements of atoms
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Geometric same covalent arrangements, different spatial arrangements cis double bonds tend to put kinks in biological molecules ( or some parts) Isomers of organic molecules X: group of attached atoms- can be quite large
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| H | H
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Enantiomers mirror images of each other In molecules where one carbon has four different groups attached (asymmetric carbon) Not responsible to identify L and R enantiomers Spatial Isomers of organic molecules
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Many biological reactions are specific to one enantiomer Enantiomers of a drug may have different effects L -glucose Not metabolized D -glucose metabolized Enantiomers
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Enantiomers and drug development
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Thalidomide : 1960s Phocomelia caused by one enantiomer Enantiomers and drug development wikimedia.org
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Natural- Organic vs. Synthetic-Chemical alpha -Amanitin Liver toxin produced by “death Cap” mushrooms wikimedia.org
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Natural- Organic vs. Synthetic-Chemical Solanine Natural Sodium thiopental Synthetic Toxic at 1000 mg/kg body mass
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Natural- Organic vs. Synthetic-Chemical Not toxic at 1000 mg/kg body mass “Citric acid”
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Biological macromolecules Proteins Nucleic acids Carbohydrates Lipids/Fats Polymers: made of smaller repeating subunits called monomers
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Polymers Large molecules ( polymers ) - with repeating subunits ( monomers ) A Monomer A H OH A1 A2 A3 Small polymer of molecule A OH H
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