Period 3 GR - WHAP GR 105-End of Period 4 1 ID...

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WHAP GR 105-End of Period 4 1. ID: Sunni/Shiite. - Shiites believed that blood should succeed Muhammad as leader of the faith - Sunni believed anybody could be leader of the faith 2. Why did Mecca and the Kaaba come to be a pilgrimage site for Muslims? - Mecca is where Ka’ba is which is the Islam’s most important mosque - Mecca is the birthplace of Muhammad 3. ID: Caliph - an emperor AND religious leader Caliphate - theocratic Islamic empire Theocracy - a system of government in which priests rule in the name of God or a god 4. The Umayyad Caliphate “would enlarge the Islamic Empire dramatically, but it would also intensify conflict with the _5 BYZANTINE and __6 PERSIAN Empires for almost a century. During the Umayyad Dynasty, the capital was moved to Damascus, Syria, although Mecca remained the spiritual center. Also during the Umayyad reign, _7 ARABIC became the official language of the government; gold and silver coins became the standard monetary unit; and conquered subjects were “encouraged” to convert to Islam in order to establish a common faith throughout the empire. Those who chose not to convert were forced to 8 PAY A TAX . As noted above, the Islamic Empire grew enormously under the Umayyads, expanding as far as 9 NORTHERN AFRICA and into Spain, where they ruled the southern Iberian peninsula from the city __10 CORDOBA . Numerous times during the early eighth century, the Umayyads attacked the Byzantine capital of Constantinople, but failed to overthrow that regime.” The Abbasid Dynasty reigned from 750 to 1258, that is, until the Islamic Empire was __11 DEFEATED BY THE MONGOLS (more on them later). Throughout this time, like all major empires, the Abbasids had many ups and downs, but they oversaw a golden age, from the early to mid, from the early to mid ninth century, during which the arts and sciences flourished. The Abbasids built a magnificent capital at Baghdad, which became one of the great cultural centers of the world. Like most of the other ancient civilizations we’ve discussed so far, the Islamic Empire was ___12 BUILT AROUND TRADE .The merchants introduced the unique idea _13 CREDIT to the empire’s trade mechanisms to free them of the burden—and the danger—of carrying coins. Necessarily, they also developed a system of itemized receipts and bills, innovations that____14 WERE LATER USED IN EUROPE AND ELSEWHERE. manufacturing played an important role in the expansion of the Islamic Empire. Steel, for example, was produced for use in swords. Islamic advancements were also seen in the _____15 MEDICAL AND MATHEMATICAL FIELDS . Muhammad al-Razi, for example, published a massive medical encyclopedia, which was unlike anything compiled before it. And Islamic mathematicians expanded the knowledge they had 16; LEARNED FROM INDIA t
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So despite the hostility between the European and Islamic worlds, the Islamic Empire is credited with playing a signi=cant role in preserving Western culture. (Recall that the Byzantines did this too.) In contrast to European civilizations during the Middle Ages, which were _____17
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