PSY 452 Study Guide #6.doc - PSY 452 Study Guide Exam#4...

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PSY 452 Study Guide, Exam #4 Chapter 11: #1. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a within - subjects (or repeated - measures ) design. Within-subjects are assigned to more than 1 treatment condition Advantages of within-subjects: o Researchers measure subjects on the DV after each treatment o Compare their performance on the DV across conditions to determine whether there is a treatment effect o Uses fewer subjects o Save time on training o Greater statistical power o More complete record of subjects performance Disadvantages of within-subjects: o Subjects participate longer o Resetting equipment may consume time o Treatment conditions may interfere with each other o Treatment order may confound results 2. Define power (as used by statisticians). Power: is an experiment’s ability to detect the IV’s effect on the DV o Statistical power is desirable when it allows us to detect practically significant differences between the experimental conditions o Theoretically, there is a point of diminishing returns where excessive power detects meaningless differences between treatment conditions 3. Give examples of a 4 x 2 between-subjects design, a 4 X 2 within-subjects design, and a 4 X 2 mixed design. How many subjects and treatment conditions are needed in each design? 4 x 2 Between subjects design: 4 x 2 Within subjects design: assigns subjects to all levels of two or more IV o each subject would take part in all 8 conditions (4 x 2=8). Subjects would see and identify 8 different faces: a man and woman displaying each of the four expressions 4 x2 Mixed design: is an experiment where there is at least one between subjects and one within subjects variable o design that combines one factor that is manipulated such as four types of expressions with a between subjects actor (often a subject variable, such as gender or age of the subjects) that cant be manipulated by the experimenter o 4. How can interference and order effects be dealt with in a within-subjects design? Interference: the interference between different conditions of an experiment is usually the biggest drawback using within subjects desing. If the treatments clash
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so badly that we cannot give them to the same subjects, we will need to use a between subjects design. Order effect: are positive (practice) and negative (fatigue) performance changes due to a conditions position in a series of treatments o It is a potential confound o Ex: if we are asking people to watch a series of tv commercials and rate how much they liked each one, the order in which we presented the commercials might affect the ratings 5. Explain the most common types of progressive error in within-subjects designs:
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