PSY 452, Study Guide #2, Fall Semester, 2014.docx -...

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Experimental Psychology Study Guide #2 Chapter 3: #1. Discuss the graph on page 64, and explain the roles of “ imposition of units ” and manipulation of antecedent conditions ” in different types of research studies. All approaches to research can be described along two major dimensions: Imposition of units: refers to the extent to which the researcher constrains, or limits, the responses a subject many contribute to the data. o Most experiments limit subject’s inputs to a narrow range of responses, placing such experiments high on the scale of imposed units. o Nonexperimental designs, can vary from low to high in imposition of units Manipulation of antecedent conditions: theoretically varies from low to high, from letting things happen as they will to setting up carefully controlled conditions. o For ex: a study of children’s nutrition could involve simply tracking behavior along with subjects normal diets (low manipulation of antecedents) or at the other extreme, we could place subjects on fixed diets where all meals are provided (high manipulation of antecedents) o EXPERIMENTS ARE TYPICALLY HIGH IN DEGREE OF MANIPULATION; NONEXPERIMENTS ARE USUALLY LOW 2. Define phenomenology , and explain research from Purkinje, James, and Ebbinghaus with this approach. Phenomenology: involves a subjects description of personal subjective experience o Is low in manipulation of antecedent conditions and low in position of units (low- low) o Cant be used to understand the causes of behavior o Personal experience rather than looking at behaviors and events that are external Purkinje: he was interested in the physiology of vision, and he noticed that colors seemed to change as twilight depended; reds appeared black but blues retained their hue. This observation (Purkinje effect) led to our understanding of of spectral sensitivity to colors of different wavelengths James: Most of his ideas were from his own experiences like his own difficulty in getting up in the morning. o He said our resistance to getting up inhibits our movement. While we concentrate on the pleasure of warm sheets and the dread of a cold floor, we are paralyzed. He said we more often than not get up without any struggle/decision but we suddenly find that we have to get up o THEREFORE, if we don’t resist, we ought to be able to get out of bed without very much effort Ebbinghaus: 3. Define case study , and explain research from Freud and Allport with this approach; explain the problem with using retrospective data. Case study: a researcher complies a descriptive study of a subject’s experiences, observable behaviors, and archival records kept by an outside observer o Range from low-low to low-high o Sources of inferences, hypotheses, and theories
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o Source of therapy techniques and allow study of rare phenomena o Provide expectations to accepted ideas, theories, and practices o Persuasive and motivational value (advertising) Freud: Case study with Little Hans and the developmental processes o
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