PSY 452 Study Guide, Exam #5, Fall, 2014.doc - The Official...

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The Official Barron Study Guide to PSY 452, Experimental Psychology, Exam #5 Chapter 9: #1. Distinguish between-subjects designs from within-subjects (or repeated-measures) designs. Between-subjects designs: a subject participates in only ONE condition of the experiment. They draw conclusions from between subjects experiments by making comparisons between the behaviors of different groups of subjects Within-subjects/repeated-measures designs: uses the same subjects with every branch of research, including the control. o Ex: repeated measures are collected in a longitudinal study in which change over time is assessed. 2. Explain how creating an experiment is akin (similar)to the floor plan of a building. The design is the experiment’s structure or floor plan- not the experiment’s specific content. It gives a layout of how your experiment is going to be organized 3. Discuss Rosnow and Rosenthal’s practical tips for preventing subjects from dropping out of a study. DO NOT WORRY ABOUT 4. How many subjects are recommended per treatment (give both the text’s and Barron’s views)? You should have at 10-20 subjects in each treatment condition to detect a strong treatment effect. Fewever subjects in each condition risks not detecting the effect of the IV on the DV. DR. Baron over 20? 5. Explain how Cohen’s effect size affects the interpretation of an experiment’s results. Effect size: is a statistical estimate of the size or magnitude of a treatment effect. o The larger the effect size, the stronger the relationship between the IV & DV and the fewer subjects needed to detect a treatment effect o Only calculate if there is a significant result o How big the effect was 6. Distinguish statistical from practical significance. Statistical: is the probability of some result from a statistical test occurring by chance. The point of doing research and running statistical analyses on data is to find the truth o Likelihood that a relationship between two or more variables is caused by something other than random chance Practical significance: implies existence of relationship between variables and real world scenarios. o Arises out of applicability of the result in decision making and is more subject and depends upon external factors like cost, time objectives, etc. apart form statistical significance
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7. Explain how random assignment affects internal validity and how a random sample affects external validity. Random assignment affects internal validity: random assignment involves assigning subjects to conditions so that each subject has an equal chance of participating in each condition. We use random assignment to equally distribute
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