Topic 7.2 Outline (1).docx - 1 of 12 Name Kaylin tokuda...

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1 of 12 Name: Kaylin tokuda Class: Psy-402 Date: april 11 Topic 7.2 Language Part 2 1) Word production a) The average North American produces 16,000 words on a typical day b) Both speaking and writing involve planning a message, correctly ordering parts of the message, and executing a response c) Speech usually occurs under time pressure d) writers in contrast can plan their messages e) Every sentence comprehended is a sentence produced f) Historically psycholinguists have studied comprehension more than production g) Language is the most social of all cognitive process h) Selecting the correct word involves activating the correct grammatical, semantic, and phonological information associated with the word i) The average college educated north American has a speaking vocabulary of at least 75,000 words j) it takes about 900 milliseconds after fixating on an object to initiate production of the name of the object k) Some researchers argue that speakers retrieve grammatical, semantic, and phonological information of a word at the same time l) Other researchers argue that we access each kind of information independently i) This argument has been evidenced by research with grammatical gender in foreign languages ii) ERP techniques demonstrate grammatical gender is accessed about 40 milliseconds before phonological properties are accessed 2) Speech Errors a) The content of the speech people produce is generally accurate and well formed
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2 of 12 b) people make an error less than once every 500 sentences c) high status speakers often make speech errors i) or they are simply observed more often d) Slips-of-the-tongue i) Errors in which sounds or entire words are rearranged between two or more different words e) Three kinds of errors are especially common i) Sound errors (1) sounds of nearby words are exchanged, snow flurries to flow snurries ii) morpheme errors (1) when morphemes are exchanged in nearby words, self destruct instruction to self instruct destruction iii) word errors (1) when words are exchanged, writing a letter to my mother to writing a mother to my letter f) we are more likely to create a word rather than a non word when making an error g) we seldom create a word that begins with an unlikely letter sequences h) in almost all cases the errors are for items across the same category i) words we are pronouncing tend to be influenced both by words we have said and words we are going to say j) The majority of errors in speech are explained by the connectionist approach and spreading activation k) Incorrect items sometimes have activation levels that are just as high as (or higher than) the correct items i) “theres an old saying in Tennessee- I know its in texas, probably in Tennessee- that says, fool me once, shame on- shame on you. Fool me- you cant get fooled again”- G.W. Bush 3) Producing a sentence a) Sentence production requires a series of stages
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3 of 12 i) Message planning (1) We mentally plan the gist, the overall meaning, of the statement to be made ii) Grammatical encoding
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