Neuropsych Midterm Study Guide Psy 4021.Identify three factors that aided the emergence of cognitive science? 20thcentury a.New developments in computer technology and artificial intelligenceb.Chomsky’s work on language acquisitionc.Millter’s work showing internal (non-behavioral) processes could be quantified 2.Explain what is meant by Hebb’s statement of “cells that fire together, wire together”?a.The more often cells communicate the stronger their communication networks becomeb.Repetitive communication between neurons is how the brain learns new information 3.Explain the primary differences between EEG, CT, PET, MRI, FMRIa.EEG: seizure activity can be confirmed and measured by EEG. Test to find problems related to electrical activity of the brain (tracks and records brain wave patterns).i.During a seizure the EEG is marked by large amplitudes oscillationsii.Not all seizures are the result of epliepsyb.CT:(Computer Tomography): uses x-ray to construct a 3D image of the tissues ofthe bodyi.Typical resolution is .5-1.0 cm in all directionsii.Each point on the scan reflects the average density of 1.0 mm of tissue iii.Large points make it difficult to discern the differences between small structuresc.PET: (Positron Emission Tomography): the brain requires oxygen to complete its tasksi.PET scans measure blood flow in the brain by utilizing a mildly radioactive dye (an oxygen isotope) that is injected into the bloodii.Limitations include expensive as well as exposure to radioactive chemicals d.MRI:(magnetic Resonance Imaging): uses magnetic fields to produce high resolution images of soft tissue i.Provides clearer image than CT scans e.FMRI: (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging): fMRI utilizies oxygen rich blood as an index of brain activity similar to the PET scani.Less invasive, uses no radioactive material, and measures activity more quiclyii.Both fMRI and PET scan are based on the ASSUMPTION blood utilization is indicative of brain activity in a specific structure for that specific momentiii.The faster scan provides more detailed image of the brain4.Describe the structure and function of the following cells: Schwann cells, oligodendrocytes, glia, microglia, astrocytes, and afferent/ efferent neuronsa.Schwann cells: Schwann cells myelinate axons in the PNSb.Oligodendrocytes: Oligodendrocytes myelinate axons in the CNS (produce myelin)
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c.Glia: Neural cells that provide structural support, speed information transfer and modulate neural activityd.Microglia: phagocytes that devour and remove damaged cells e.Astrocytes: cells that create the blood brain barrier and restrict the diffusion of microscopic objects within the brainf.Afferent neurons: Dorsal afferent neurons carry information into the spinal cordg.Efferent neurons: Ventral efferent neurons carry information out of the spinal cord 5.Identify the neuron that comprise the blood brain barrier and explain the purpose of the structurea.
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