1 of 10Name:Kaylin TokudaClass: Psy-402Date: Jan 31Topic 3.1 Sensation1)Basic Definitionsa) Sensationi)The activation of a sense organ by a source of physical energyb) Perceptioni)The interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli by the sense organs of the brainc) Stimulusi)Energy that produces a response in a sense organd) Psychophysicsi)The study of the relationship between a stimulus and our experiencee)Absolute Thresholdi)The smallest intensity of a stimulus that can be detected ii)usually this is measured by decreasing the size of the stimulus until it is only detected 50% of the the timeiii) ex: some human absolute thresholds (candle flame at 30 miles, ticking ofa watch at 25 feet)iv) Detection can be limited due to noisev)Background stimulation that interferes with perceptionf)Difference Thresholdi)The smallest level of added or reduced stimulation required to sense a change in the stimulationg)Just Noticeable Difference (JND)i)The minimum change required to detect a change in stimulationh)Weber’s Lawi)The JND is a constant proportion of the intensity of the initial stimulusii)thus the JND for weight is 1:50
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2 of 10iii) A person will notice the difference between a 50 and 51 lb. weight; as well as a 100 and 102 lb weight; but will not detect the difference between a 100 and 101 lb weight i)Adaptationi)The adjustment of our sensory capacity after prolonged exposure to an unchanging stimuliii)ex: a person who regularly smokes may grow immune to the smell of smokeiii) Adaptation occurs as people become accustomed to a stimulus and change their frame of referenceiv) The change in sensitivity is due to the sensory neurons slowing their firing (1) Sensory neurons tend to be most excited by changes in stimulation while ignoring constants j)Transductioni)Each sensory system has anatomical structures that collect, filter, and amplify information in the environmentii)Transduction: the process in which a cell changes a physical stimulus into a neural electrochemical signaliii) each sense has specialized transduction cellsk) Acuityi)Individual cells have a limited range of stimuli that they respond to(1) ex: our total visual spectrum can sense light 400-700 nanometers but individual cells respond only to tiny fractions of this spectrumii)Acuity: the ability to distinguish differences among stimuli within a sensory modality(1) In general, having more receptors corresponds with having greater acuityl)All senses except ____Olfaction___ are processed through the thalamusi)The thalamus provides an opportunity for multisensory integrationii)Neural connections leave the thalamus and travel to primary and secondary sensory cortices
3 of 10m) Detection of a stimulus can be influenced byi)Attention level, memory, and emotion2)Visiona)Light is a physical electromagnetic wave/particle that stimulates the photoreceptors in the eyesb)The visual spectrum humans see is a narrow band in the complete EM spectrumc)The majority of the eye is a mechanical device d) Structuresi)Cornea
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