Topic 3.1 Outline.docx - 1 of 10 Name:Kaylin Tokuda Class Psy-402 Topic 3.1 Sensation Date Jan 31 1 Basic Definitions a Sensation i The activation of a

Topic 3.1 Outline.docx - 1 of 10 Name:Kaylin Tokuda Class...

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1 of 10 Name:Kaylin Tokuda Class: Psy-402 Date: Jan 31 Topic 3.1 Sensation 1) Basic Definitions a) Sensation i) The activation of a sense organ by a source of physical energy b) Perception i) The interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli by the sense organs of the brain c) Stimulus i) Energy that produces a response in a sense organ d) Psychophysics i) The study of the relationship between a stimulus and our experience e) Absolute Threshold i) The smallest intensity of a stimulus that can be detected ii) usually this is measured by decreasing the size of the stimulus until it is only detected 50% of the the time iii) ex: some human absolute thresholds (candle flame at 30 miles, ticking of a watch at 25 feet) iv) Detection can be limited due to noise v) Background stimulation that interferes with perception f) Difference Threshold i) The smallest level of added or reduced stimulation required to sense a change in the stimulation g) Just Noticeable Difference (JND) i) The minimum change required to detect a change in stimulation h) Weber’s Law i) The JND is a constant proportion of the intensity of the initial stimulus ii) thus the JND for weight is 1:50
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2 of 10 iii) A person will notice the difference between a 50 and 51 lb. weight; as well as a 100 and 102 lb weight; but will not detect the difference between a 100 and 101 lb weight i) Adaptation i) The adjustment of our sensory capacity after prolonged exposure to an unchanging stimuli ii) ex: a person who regularly smokes may grow immune to the smell of smoke iii) Adaptation occurs as people become accustomed to a stimulus and change their frame of reference iv) The change in sensitivity is due to the sensory neurons slowing their firing (1) Sensory neurons tend to be most excited by changes in stimulation while ignoring constants j) Transduction i) Each sensory system has anatomical structures that collect, filter, and amplify information in the environment ii) Transduction: the process in which a cell changes a physical stimulus into a neural electrochemical signal iii) each sense has specialized transduction cells k) Acuity i) Individual cells have a limited range of stimuli that they respond to (1) ex: our total visual spectrum can sense light 400-700 nanometers but individual cells respond only to tiny fractions of this spectrum ii) Acuity: the ability to distinguish differences among stimuli within a sensory modality (1) In general, having more receptors corresponds with having greater acuity l) All senses except ____Olfaction___ are processed through the thalamus i) The thalamus provides an opportunity for multisensory integration ii) Neural connections leave the thalamus and travel to primary and secondary sensory cortices
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3 of 10 m) Detection of a stimulus can be influenced by i) Attention level, memory, and emotion 2) Vision a) Light is a physical electromagnetic wave/particle that stimulates the photoreceptors in the eyes b) The visual spectrum humans see is a narrow band in the complete EM spectrum c) The majority of the eye is a mechanical device d) Structures i) Cornea
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