3 Historical Geography I.pdf - Historical Geography of...

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Historical Geography of Canada I: Pre-confederation
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“The past is never dead. It is not even past.” -William Faulkner
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Core Concepts First Nations Eurocentrism / ‘Eurocentric Diffusionism’ Colonialism Settler Colonialism Humanism Doctrine of Discovery Racism Rupert’s Land / Hudson’s Bay Company New France French and Indian Wars (Seven Years’ War) “Noble Savage” American War of Independence (American Revolution) War of 1812 Colonial Imaginations Oregon Border Dispute British Columbia Frontier
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First Nations (FN) populations before contact lived in the Americas for at least 40,000 years population in N+S America approx. 112m (Europe at the time had around 70m) around 20m in North America around 2m in Canada (cold climate, glaciers) Canadian FN: 50-70 languages in 12 language families
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Note: Names on map are European names for Indigenous groups and many have since been changed to reflect FN preference.
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Snuneymuxw (Nanaimo) Tla-o-qui-aht (Clayoquot) Wewaykum (Campbell River) Hwlitsum (Lamalcha) Hupacasath (Opetchesaht) Haisla (Kitimaat) Tsleil-Waututh (Burrard) Tasttine (Beaver) Wuikinuxv (Owekeeno) Sto:lo (Fraser River Salish) Weewaikai (Cape Mudge) Dene-thah (Slavey) Nuu-chah-nulth (Nootka) Dakelh (Carrier) Innu (Montagnais and Naskapi) Nlaka'pamux (Thompson) Kainai (Blood) Laich-kwil-tach (S. Kwakiutl) Tsuu T'ina (Sarcee) Ktunaxa (Kootenay) St'at'imc (Lillooet) Nlaka'pamux (Thompson) Secwepemc (Shuswap) Gwich'in (Kutchin) Mohawk (Kanien’Kaha:ka) Sisika (Blackfoot) Mushkegowuk (Swampy Cree) Ottawa (Odawa) Dunne-Za (Beaver) Anishinaabe (Chippewa, Ojibway) Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Chonnonton ( Neutral) Wyandot (Huron) Just a few of the First Nations group names that have changed as First Nations reclaim their original names (English name in brackets).
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TOPONYMS Tsawout First Nation chief Eric Pelkey led a day of action in 2013 to rename Mount Douglas to Pkols, its Tsawout name.
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EARLY CONTACT
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CONTACT ZONE: =used generally for places where white western travellers have encountered cultural, ethnic, or racial Others and both groups have been transformed by the experience “…social spaces where cultures, meet, clash and grapple with each other, often in contexts of highly asymmetrical relations of power, such as colonialism, slavery, or their aftermaths as they lived out in many parts of the world today.” -Mary Louise Pratt ( Imperial Eyes )
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Eurocentric diffusionism: a theory that ideas and innovation tend to flow out of Europe and towards other places; Europe is the source of most/all important inventions and innovations, which later spread to the rest of the world (Blaut 1993) Blaut, J. M. (1999). Marxism and Eurocentric diffusionism.
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