AMU 1325 Exam Prep.docx - Semester 1 Exam Prep – Intro to...

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Semester 1 Exam Prep – Intro to World Politics and History SECTION A – Short Answers - 20 key concepts, of which 10 will appear. Only answer 5 topics - 200 words per topic 1) The Truman Doctrine, 1947 a. American foreign policy to contain communism b. Truman announced that USA would support foreign governments in resisting ‘armed minorities’ (Communist Revolutionaries) c. Truman stated that the USA had the responsibility to ‘support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures’ d. Also emphasized that if aid was not provided, other European countries would come under threat, thereby starting a domino effect e. Accelerated the Cold War by polarizing USA and USSR f. Causes i. Greece and Turkey were threatened by a communist takeover ii. Britain could no longer support the two states iii. Fear of communism spreading across Europe (Domino Theory) g. Consequences i. Doctrine confirmed the division of the world into ‘communist’ and ‘non-communist’ ii. USA became more committed to containment iii. USA decided on the Marshall Plan; USSR set up Cominform 2) Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 a. Causes i. Cubans viewed the dictatorship of the leader, Fulgencio Batista symbolized foreign domination and inequality, and supported the revolutionary forces led by Fidel Castro ii. Bay of Pigs – Failed US attempt to overthrow the Castro Regime in Cuba. USA supported the right-wing military group called ‘Brigade’ iii. After Bay of Pigs, Khrushchev reached a secret agreement with Castro to place Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba to deter a future invasion attempt, leading to a US naval block iv. Closest the two states came to nuclear war v. ¼ of a million Cubans were called to repel an American invasion vi. After bargaining, the crisis was finally resolved, Khrushchev offered to withdraw missiles while demanding that USA remove missiles from Turkey
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Semester 1 b. Consequences i. US missile sites in Turkey were dismantled ii. America didn’t bother Cuba afterwards (Khrushchev claimed he won) iii. However, Khrushchev lost his prestige, and in 1964, he was forced to step down as Soviet leader 3) Vietnam War, 1954 - 1975 a. North Vietnam = Communist b. South Vietnam = Not communist c. Ho Chi Minh wanted to spread Communism, USA promoted containment d. Domino Effect – USA feared communism would spread through South East Asia, USA sent money, supplies e. Reasons for US failure i. Brutal air attacks turned the Vietnamese against USA ii. Use of chemical weapons (Napalm, Agent Orange) caused harm to humans and crops iii. Americans bombed strategic target in North Vietnam to stop the supply of troops and weapons, but these hot schools and hospitals instead iv. Vietnamese civilians were caught in the crossfire f. Consequences i. Americans lost 58,000 lives during their ‘longest war’ ii. USA spent $155 billion in South East Asia iii. War fueled inflation iv. 500,000 South Vietnamese civilians were killed 4) The Kashmir Conflict a. Kashmir was an independent princely state during the British
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