A&P CH 9 OUTLINE.docx - CH 9 The Nervous System(Part 1 I Organization A The Parts and Basic Operation of the Nervous System 1 The brain and spinal

A&P CH 9 OUTLINE.docx - CH 9 The Nervous System(Part 1...

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CH 9: The Nervous System (Part 1) I. Organization A. The Parts and Basic Operation of the Nervous System 1. The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS ). 2. Everything outside the brain and spinal cord is part of the peripheral nervous system (PNS ). 3. The input side of the nervous system is the sensory system . 4. The output side of the nervous system is the motor system . a. The somatic nervous system controls skeletal muscle; voluntary movements. b. The autonomic nervous system controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands. It is comprised of two branches: i. The parasympathetic system that deals with resting body functioning ii. The sympathetic nervous system , which controls the fight-or-flight response system II. Nervous Tissue A. Neuroglia : 1. Neuroglia are specialized cells in the nervous system that perform all the support functions for neurons. 2. The Central Nervous System has four types of neuroglia or glial cells: a. Astrocytes : Metabolic and structural support cells; connect to capillaries and form part of the blood brain barrier b. Microglia: Attack microbes and remove debris. c. Ependymal cells: Cover and line cavities of the nervous system. d. Oligodendrocytes : Make a lipid insulation called myelin; hold nerve fibers together 3. The Peripheral Nervous System has two types of glial cells: a. Schwann cells: Make myelin for the PNS Amazing Facts Neuron impulses can move very quickly. Some neurons have speeds as fast as 100 meters/second. That’s about 200 m.p.h.
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b. Satellite cells: support cells B. Neurons 1. Carry out all the control functions of nervous system. 2. Each part of a neuron has a specific function. a. Neuron body : cell metabolism b. Dendrites : Receive information from the environment or from other cells. c. Axon : Cell body generates and sends signals to other cells via the axon. d. Axon terminal : at the end of the axon and it emits the signal from the cell. e. Synapse : A space between cells where the electrical signal is sent via neurotransmitters across the synaptic gap to the receiving cell. 3. Classification of neurons: structure and function a. Function i. Sensory/ afferent neurons : input neurons; afferent (toward) signals to the brain ii. Motor/ efferent neurons : output neurons; efferent (away from) signals from the brain to the body iii. Interneurons ( association neurons ): communicate between neurons b. Structure i. Bipolar : one axon and one dendrite ii. Unipolar : one process that splits into central and peripheral projections iii. Multipolar : one axon and many dendrites. III. How Neurons Work A. Excitable cells 1. Can carry a charge, such as neurons 2. Have membrane potential : the difference in electrical potential between the interior of a cell and the exterior of a cell a. Each time charged particles flow across a cell membrane, a tiny charge is generated.
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