Unformatted text preview: Note that the information included in the memo is the same as the info in the handout and PPT. Researched Memo TO: Houston Area Women’s Center
FROM: Aislynn Gordon
DATE: December 29, 2017
SUBJECT: Educational Media Tools for Community on Intimate Partner Violence Creating an informational handout along with a screencast to present to the
community regarding intimate partner violence (also referred to as domestic abuse)
could be extremely beneficial to your mission of raising awareness of the subject. It
will also give more significance to the services offered that will increase financial
resources for the Houston Area Women’s Center. Educational tools would define,
discuss the prevalence, and explain aspects of intimate partner violence including:
risks factors, preventative factors, dynamics of abuse and the community’s role in
prevention. Definition This person effectively uses sections and titles throughout the memo, and for this topic, starting with a definition is smart. It is essential ensure the audience has a correct definition of intimate partner
violence. The Center of Disease Control (CDC) defines intimate partner violence as
“physical, sexual, or psychological harm caused by current or former partner or
spouse.” Domestic abuse is a behavior that is often used to maintain power and
control of significant other by a variety means (SAFE). Incidence and Prevalence
There are a few errors in citations here. The general rule is a citation every three lines if information comes from the same source. Including the incidence and prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) will help
the audience understand the magnitude of this societal issue.
• 7 1 in 4 women have experienced severe physical violence (e.g. being beaten, burned, or
chocked), 16% of these women have also experienced contact sexual violence including
rape, made to perform/participate in unwanted sexual acts, and unwanted sexual contact
Abused children are more likely to be victims or perpetrators of IPV (CDC)
41% of women IPV survivors experience physical injury (CDC)
40% of female homicide victims in the U.S. are killed by an intimate partner (CDC)
In 2013, in Texas alone, 119 women were killed related to family violence incidents
52% of women who have experience sexual or physical violence by an intimate partner
have related post traumatic stress disorder (CDC) Multi-Level Risk and Preventative Factors (CDC) Level Preventative
Factors Risk Factors Individual •
• Low socioeconomic status
History of child abuse •
High verbal IQ Divorce/Separation,
communication • Relational •
• Positive maternal
Attachment with school •
Low collective efficacy in
neighborhoods • Community norms intolerant
to IPV • Harmful gender norms •
• Economical 0pportunity
Housing security Communal Societal • The chart information needs citations, and heading fonts are inconsistent. Dynamics of Intimate Partner Violence Giving our audience background on dynamic theories that drive abuse will
provide a higher level of understanding of IPV and patterns that can be used to
identify a potentially abusive situation. Looking the power and control wheel theory
we can see that an abuser may use means coercion, intimidation, male privilege,
economic abuse and children to keep control of the relationship (SAFE). The abuser
may use minimizing, denying and blaming of the victim’s behavior as means to keep
control (SAFE). If power and control are not maintained with these tactics the abuser
will use physical or sexual violence, the first outer ring of the power and control
wheel. The second outer ring being institutions, surrounded lastly by culture puts
together how these violent behaviors are socially supported through our daily lives
and culture as a whole (Missouri Coalition).
Another theory called the cycle theory of violence has three different phases
that an abusive relationship will go through. The first stage called the tensionbuilding phase involving minor abusive incidents but the women works to meet the
demands of her abuser (Katerndahl). The second phase, referred to as the
explosion, is “characterized by high severity and brutality, batters’ lack control and
brevity” (Katerndahl). The third phase is called the honeymoon phase where the
abuser apologizes and draws the woman back into the relationship. This pattern is
also alarming because “without intervention a batter’s abuse increases in intensity
and frequency over time” which means more injury to the women (SAFE). 8 Looking at these theories it is entirely possible that the two patterns may
coexist in an abusive relationship. The power and control lost by the abuser resulting
in physical abuse may simply be an explanation of the timing of seen in the cycle
theory of violence. It is interesting to not in a time-series study that the power wheel
theory was reported with more frequent and higher severity of violence at 35% of the
days compared to 12% with lower severity in the cycle theory (Katerndahl).
After examining the theories behind the IPV, it helps the outsider understand
the dynamic as to why so many women have trouble leaving an abusive relationship.
Victims may be in a mindset that reconciliation after a battering incident is a way
many women deny their situation and also not having to deal with the guilt of ‘ruining
a relationship.’ Other dilemmas women face leaving an abusive relationship come
from very logical fears. A woman may be putting herself or her children in harms
way. She may lose legal right to her children, financial support, housing, and
possessions (Missouri Coalition). Also many abusers may threaten to commit
suicide if a victim leaves.
Community Role in Prevention The ideal method to prevention of IPV is through primary prevention. Primary
prevention including early promotion of “healthy, respectful and nonviolent
relationships. We must acknowledge and address the problem multiple levels
including: the individual, relational, communal, and societal levels (CDC). Our culture
and attitudes must change to stop intimate partner violence. The Domestic Abuse
Project recommends the following for helping victims:
• Remember you cannot rescue them and make the decision for them to get out an
Acknowledge their situation and validate their feelings. Let them know it is not their
Be supportive and non-judgmental. Listen to what they have to say and respect their
decision even if it is to go back to the relationship.
If they leave the abuser, remember that although it may be an abusive relationship
they lost, it is still relationship and they may be lonely
Develop a safety plan: get them emergency contacts including numbers to HAWC
hotlines and remind them of the services offered
Encourage them to seek help counseling, as HAWC offers. Remember you may
bring them, but the victim must come forward with the information
This is an excellent ending to the memo—recommendations for action and awareness! The Works Cited
has been removed from this PDF, but be sure to include yours at the end of your memo. 9 Infographic 10 There are many great things happening in this infographic. The color scheme is consistent and reflects the seriousness of
the topic. There are a few key facts, but the handout is not inundated with information. Citations appear at the bottom of the
page. The layout is clean and simple, and facts are presented in visual chunks on the page. Screencast 11 Th screencast uses a similar color scheme and layout. It is clear, and each slide
contains a small amount of information. This is critical for an effective PPT
presentation—put tiny amounts of text and graphics so that each slide is focused
on a clear idea and not too much for your audience to digest. This PowerPoint is
longer than yours needs to be—this screencast ended up being almost 7 minutes
long. But the key to consider here is that the information is the same, and it is
nicely arranged on each slide. I can’t stress enough—on PPT slides, less is
more!! Also notice that the color scheme, graphics, and fonts are consistent
throughout the presentation. 12 Script of Screencast You can see here that this person edited down information from her memo. That’s exactly what you want to
do. She did add several more oral citations to her final draft on slides 4-7. All she added was “According to…”
and provided author information just like she did on slide 3 (“The CDC defines…”). She also included citations
on her slides. Make sure you also cite orally in your script and on your slides when possible. It’s still important
to acknowledge your sources, even when you are not writing a formal memo. SLIDE 1: In this presentation we will be exploring the topic of Intimate Partner
Violence also commonly referred to as domestic violence. The population we will
focus on is women in the United States.
SLIDE 2: Throughout this presentation we will:
• Define Intimate Partner Violence, abbreviated as IPV.
• Explore some shocking statistics that demonstrate the impact IPV has on
• Assess the risk factors and preventative factors associated with becoming a
victim or even a perpetrator of IPV.
• Explore two common theories that explain the complex dynamics involved with
Then discuss the community’s role in IPV prevention. SLIDE 3: The CDC defines intimate partner violence as “physical violence, sexual
violence, stalking or psychological aggression caused by, current or former, partner
or spouse.” Domestic abuse is a behavior that is often used to maintain power and
control over a significant other by a variety means.
SLIDE 4: -1 in 4 women have experienced severe physical violence related to IPV.
Physical violence including being beaten, burned, or chocked.
-16% of women have also experienced contact sexual violence including rape,
forced participation in unwanted sexual acts, or unwanted sexual contact.
SLIDE 5: Additionally 41% of female IPV survivors experience significant physical
injury. It is reported that 40% of female homicide victims in the United States are
killed by intimate partners, IPV also takes a huge hit on the economy with $5.8 billion
being spent on only medical and mental health services for IPV. This does not
include welfare, unemployment, or any other government aid these victims need to
recover from their trauma
SLIDE 6: The risks associated with intimate partner violence fall on multiple levels.
Individual factors include low socioeconomic status and a history of child abuse.
Relational factors such as divorce or even averse family communication are risks.
Communal factors include poverty and low collective efficacy in neighborhoods.
And finally at the societal level risks include: general cultural attitudes towards IPV
and harmful gender norms. Assessing the risk factors associated with intimate
partner violence holds the key in finding effective preventive factors.
SLIDE 7: Although not as highly researched, protective factors from IPV do exist
and parallel with prevention measures. These include: Empathetic individuals with
good grades and a high verbal IQ, Strong positive maternal relationships and 13 attachment with school, community norms that are intolerant to IPV, and societal
factors such as economical opportunity and housing security.
SLIDE 8: There will be two theories we will look at that explain the complex
dynamics involved in intimate partner violence. One will be the Power Control
Wheel Theory and the other will be the cycle. The patterns these theories present
may overlap in many abusive relationships.
SLIDE 9: The first theory we will discuss is the Power Control Wheel Theory. As you
can see ‘power and control’ are in the center of this wheel. The abuser maintains
these two elements by the means that surround this center circle. The abuser may
use isolation by controlling what a woman does including limiting access to a
phone or transportation. He may also try to keep her from getting a job forcing the
women to ask for money as a form of control. The abuser can launch attacks on a
victims appearance, make threats to take the children or even commit suicide. At
times when these tactics are not providing satisfying behavior the abuser moves to
the furthest edge of the wheel, which includes extremely violent episodes of
physical and sexual abuse.
SLIDE 10: The second theory we will examine is called the Cycle Theory of
violence. This theory has three distinct phases. The first stage, called the tensionbuilding phase, involves minor abusive incidents but overall the victim is able to
fulfill the demands of her abuser by adjustments to her behavior. The second
phase, referred to as the explosion, is “characterized by high severity and brutality.”
In this stage, batters’ lack control and brevity” The third phase is called the
honeymoon phase where the abuser apologizes and admits he took it too far. This
reconciliation draws the woman back into the relationship. This pattern is also
alarming because IPV research shows “without intervention a batter’s abuse
increases in intensity and frequency over time” meaning more injury to the woman.
SLIDE 11: Primary prevention is truly the key to stopping IPV
SLIDE 12: One of the biggest influencers in primary prevention is promoting
healthy, respectful, non-violent relationships from a very young age.
SLIDE 13: Primary prevention on communal and societal levels includes
empowering peers and families with education, and creating protective
environments through collective efficacy. 14 In her final portfolio, this student included a link to her final screencast. She used
a free service, and the link has since expired, but you will need to be sure to
include a link to or a file containing your final screencast when you turn in your
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