Tro’s Chemistry Chapter 4 Chemical Quantities and Aqueous Equations Page 1 of 10 Acknowledgements: Some of the images are adopted from Tro’s textbookto aid student learning. Key skills: Calculations involving stoichiometric reactions, limiting reactant, and theoretical yield, determining solution dilutions, predicting solubility of a compd, writing precipitation, complete ionic, and net ionic equations, writing acid-base reactions, calculations involving acid-base titrations, writing gas evolution, combustion, and redox reactions, assigning oxidation states. Review questions: 1-24. Suggested problems:25, 27, 31, 41, 45, 53, 57, 59, 63, 65, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 83, 85, 87, 89, 91, 93, 95, 97, 105. FYI–A mastery of the materials of chapters 1-3 will make it easier for you to excel problem solving in this chapter. Make sure that you review those concepts as they become pertinent. Arrange to receive tutoring help if needed. 4.1 & 2 Fossil fuel, Global warming, Reaction Stoichiometry (Refer to Example 4.1&2 and Practice 4.1&2 for problem solving help/hint.) What does a balanced equation mean? Many things! We experience chemical reaction on a daily basis and never understand what they represent. If we understood all that we would have been able to tell ourselves how much food we need to eat to survive, how does fat grow due to eating too much carbohydrate, how do we contribute to acid rain that spoils our harvest? CO2(g) + H2O(l) ⟶H2CO3(aq) Consider the combustion reaction of octane: 2 C8H18(l) + 25 O2(g) ⟶16 CO2(g) + 18 H2O(g) Molecular level: Molar level: Gram level: •Reactions happen by the mole bundle •The coefficients in a chemical reaction specify the relative amounts in moles of each of the substances involved in the reaction. •How many mole ratios exist in the above equation?