TroChapter2Notes.pdf - Tro’s Chemistry Chapter 2 – Atoms and Elements Page 1 of 5 Acknowledgements Some of the images are adopted from Tro’s

TroChapter2Notes.pdf - Tro’s Chemistry Chapter 2 –...

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Tro’s Chemistry Chapter 2 – Atoms and Elements Page 1 of 5 Acknowledgements: Some of the images are adopted from Tro’s textbook to aid student learning. Key skills: Law of definite proportions, law of multiple proportions, subatomic particles, atomic mass unit, atomic number, muss number, isotope, atomic weight, predicting charges of ions, converting between mass, mole, and number of atoms, periodic table, period, group, metal, nonmetal, metalloid, anion, cation. Review questions: 3-6, 13-28. Suggested problems: 33, 53, 57, 61, 67, 69, 75, 87, 105, 113. FYI Chapters 1-3 contain brief review of high school chemistry concepts and will be covered promptly. Make sure that you can deal with these materials independently and reliably. A good grade in college chemistry is dependent on that efficiency. Obtain t utoring help in case you couldn’t apply these concepts in problem solving. 2.1. & 2.2 History of Atom 2.3 Modern Atomic Theory and the associated laws The Law of Conservation of Mass (Lavoisier, 1789). In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed. 2 HgO (solid, red) 2 Hg (liquid, shiny) + O 2 (gas, no color) The Law of Definite Proportions ( Proust, 1779). All samples of a given compound, regardless of their source or how they were prepared, have the same proportions of their constituent elements. (Refer to Example 2.1 and Practice 2.1 for problem solving help/hint.) Example: H 2 O Q33. The mass ratio of sodium to fluorine in sodium fluoride is 1.21:1. A sample of sodium fluoride produced 28.8 g of sodium upon decomposition. How much fluorine (in grams) was formed? The Law of Multiple Proportions ( Dalton, 1804). When two elements (call them A and B) form two different compounds, the masses of element B that combine with 1 g of element A can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers.
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