TroChapter7Notes.pdf - Tro’s Chemistry Chapter 7 – Quantum Mechanics and the Atom Page 1 of 7 Acknowledgements Some of the images are adopted from

TroChapter7Notes.pdf - Tro’s Chemistry Chapter 7 –...

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Tro’s Chemistry Chapter 7 – Quantum Mechanics and the Atom Page 1 of 7 Acknowledgements: Some of the images are adopted from Tro’s textbook to aid student learning. Key skills: Calculating frequency and wavelength of light, calculating energy of an electron, relating wavelength, energy, and frequency of electromagnetic spectrum, quantum numbers, frequency of electron transitions. Review questions: 3-7, 12-14, 27-30, 32, 33. Suggested problems: 35, 39, 41, 45, 59, 61, 69. Introduction For the longest time atom was perceived as the smallest particle making a matter. As scientific observations progressed atoms were found to contain even smaller particles. This created new explanations to the previous observations. Quantum mechanics gave new account for fundamental observations, including the stability of atoms, periodic behavior, chemical bonding, etc. The names to remember in this section are Einstein, Bohr, de Broglie, Max Plank, Heisenberg, Dirac, Schrödinger, etc. 7.1 Quantum Mechanics: A Theory That Explains the Behavior of the Absolutely Small Small is a relative term. A house cannot be smaller than the brick it is made up of. Electrons are among the smallest particles that make up matter and determine many of its physical and chemical properties. The method of observing electrons disturbs the electrons, making it difficult to observe, therefore, creating limitations. 7 .2 The Nature of Light (Refer to example 7.1 and exercise 7.1 for problem solving help and hints.) Light was viewed to have very different properties from electrons. With the development of quantum mechanics light is found to have wave-particle duality, meaning some properties of light can be explained by wave properties and others by particle nature. The Wave Properties of Light Light is electromagnetic radiation (embodied in oscillating electric and magnetic fields moving perpendicular to one another). Speed of light is 3.00 x 10 8 m/s . Speed of sound is 340 m/s. This is why we see the lightning bolt before we hear the thunder.
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