Chapter_09_Articulations.ppt - Anatomy and Physiology I BIOL 2401 Chapter 9 Articulations Chapter 9 Articulations Learning objectives • Describe the

Chapter_09_Articulations.ppt - Anatomy and Physiology I...

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BIOL 2401 Anatomy and Physiology I Chapter 9 Articulations
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Chapter 9 Articulations Learning objectives: Describe the structural divisions of joints with an example of each. Describe the functional divisions of joints with an example of each. Describe a synovial joint and accessory structures often found in a synovial joint. Describe some of the major synovial joints of the body. Describe the terminology associated with different types of movements. Describe the disorders of joints. Describe how aging affects joints.
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Articulations A point where two skeletal elements meet. Skeletal elements: bone, cartilage, teeth May be Temporary (epiphyseal plate) or permanent (elbow). Immovable ( synarthroses ), slightly movable ( amphiarthroses ), or freely movable ( diarthroses = synovial ). Arthrology : study of joints Kinesiology : study of movement Classified on basis of structure or function
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Classification Based on Function Synarthrosis : immovable (syn= together) Amphiarthosis : slightly moveable (amphi= on both sides) Diarthrosis : freely moveable (diarthro= double joint; very moveable)
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Classification Based on Structure Types Fibrous Bony Cartilagenous Synovial
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Classification Based on Structure Bony Joints No joint cavity. Bones are completely fused together by a process called synostosis . Examples: frontal bone, coxal bone, mandible Synarthrosis.
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No joint cavity; bones held together by fibrous connective tissue. Synarthoses or amphiarthroses. Suture = seam; bones joined by thin layer of dense fibrous connective tissue. Synarthosis – immovable joint. When replaced by bone in an adult- synostosis Syndesmosis = Fibrous interosseous membrane or ligament. Amphiarthrosis – some movement. Gomphosis = Cone-shaped peg (tooth) fits into a socket (alveolar process of maxilla or mandible). Amphiarthrosis Classification Based on Structure Fibrous Joints
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No joint cavity Bones held together by cartilage Examples: epiphyseal plate, pubic symphysis Types Synchondrosis Symphysis Classification Based on Structure Cartilaginous Joints
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Classification Based on Structure Cartilaginous Joints Synchondrosis : Bones connected by hyaline cartilage Synarthosis – Immovable joint. Epiphyseal plate of growing long bones; joints between ribs and sternum Symphysis : growing together Intervertebral discs and symphysis pubis. Amphiarthrosis – partial movement.
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Cavity in the joint. Bones held together by a capsule and ligaments. Diarthrosis. Examples: knee, TMJ, shoulder, hip, elbow, interphalangeal joints. Classification Based on Structure Synovial Joints
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Diarthrosis = freely movable. Synovial cavity with synovial membrane separates articulating bones: Articular capsule : encloses the synovial cavity, unites the articulating bones. Has two parts: fibrous capsule and synovial membrane (see next slide).
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