Chapter_15_Neural_Integration_I.ppt - Anatomy and Physiology Biology 2401 Chapter-15 Neural Integration I Four Principal Functions of the Nervous System

Chapter_15_Neural_Integration_I.ppt - Anatomy and...

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Biology 2401 Anatomy and Physiology Chapter-15 Neural Integration I
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Four Principal Functions of the Nervous System Carry information from receptors to the brain: sensation Integrate the sensory information: association Transmit motor responses to effectors Memory
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Sensation Conscious or unconscious awareness of both external and internal stimuli Perception : conscious awareness and interpretation of sensations Process of sensation 1. Stimulation (change in the environment) of sensory receptor 2. Transduction of the stimulus: conversion of stimulus into an electrical potential 3. Generation of a impulse and conduction : if the electrical potential reaches threshold, an action potential is produced and travels to the CNS 4. Integration of the sensory input : the action potential is translated into a sensation
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Sensory Modality The way one sensation is distinguished from another Two major classes of modalities: general and special senses General senses subdivided into Visceral : provide information about conditions of internal organs Somatic : provide information about external stimuli affecting the skin and its accessory structures as well as proprioceptive information from the joints Special senses are smell, taste, vision, hearing and equilibrium
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Types of Sensory Receptors A first order neuron acts as the receptor. Primary receptor . Free nerve endings: naked dendrites of the neuron act as the receptor. Pain, heat, cold Encapsulated nerve endings: connective tissue layers surround the dendrites of the first order neuron Sensory receptor cells synapse with a first order neuron. Secondary receptor .
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Types of Sensory Receptors
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Types of Potentials Produced Generator potential : free nerve endings, encapsulated nerve endings, and the receptive part of olfactory receptors produce an action potentials Receptor potential : receptor cells for vision, taste, equilibrium, and hearing. The receptor cell produces a receptor potential and then the receptor then releases a neurotransmitter that binds to receptors on the primary sensory neuron.
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Types of Receptors Based on Location Exteroceptors : used to interpret stimuli that come from the external environment and that are at or near the surface of the body. Touch, pressure, vibration, temperature, pain, hearing, vision, smell, taste. Interoceptors : used to interpret stimuli that are produced internally. Found in organs such as blood vessels and the viscera. Perceived as pain or pressure Proprioceptors : receptors that recognize the position of the body and about body position, muscle tension or activity of joints. Stretch receptors in muscles, tendons, and joints. Equilibrium receptors in inner ear
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Types of Receptors Based on Type of Stimulus Detected Mechanoreceptors : touch, pressure, vibration, proprioception, hearing and equilibrium Thermoreceptors : changes in temperature Nocioceptors : respond to physical or chemical damage to tissues. Results in pain perception Photoreceptors
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