2-Sources of bioelectric potentials-05-Dec-2018Reference Material I_Part 3 biosignals origin and mea

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Bio-signals
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Origin of Bio-potentials
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Bioelectric phenomena
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Goals Monitoring and Recording many forms of bioelectric phenomena ECG (Electrocardiography ( EMG (Electromyography ( EEG (Electroencephalography ( ENG (electroneurography (
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Bio-potentials Certain systems of the body create their own " monitoring " signals, which convey useful information regarding the functions they represent . These signals are the Bio-potentials “BP” associated with the conduction along the sensory and motor nervous system, muscular contractions, brain activity, heart contractions, etc . These potentials are a result of the electrochemical activity occurring in certain classes of cells within the body Excitable Cells . Measurements of these Bio-potentials can provide clinicians with invaluable diagnostic information
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Cell Membrane Potentials Cell membranes in general, and membranes of nerve cells in particular, maintain a small voltage or "potential" across the membrane in its normal or resting state . In the rest state , the inside of the nerve cell membrane is negative with respect to the outside (typically about -70 millivolts (. The voltage arises from differences in concentration of the electrolyte ions K+ and Na +. There is a process which utilizes ATP to pump out three Na+ ions and pump in two K+ ions. The collective action of these mechanisms leaves the interior of the membrane about -70 mV with respect to the outside .
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