ch 7: The Skeleton System - Chapter 7 The Skeleton Bones...

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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 7 The Skeleton: Bones and Joints
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved The Skeleton The skeletal system is made up of bones, joints, and supporting connective tissue (cartilage and ligaments). Ligaments - hold bones together at joints Tendons - attach muscle to bone Includes - the skull, the vertebral column and thoracic cage, the pectoral girdle and upper limb, the pelvic girdle and the lower limb Osteology - study of bone
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Figure 7-1 The skeleton. The Skeleton (cont.)
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Bones Bone Functions Act as a framework for body Protect delicate structures Examples: Brain and spinal cord Work as levers to produce movement Store calcium Produce blood cells - red bone marrow
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Bones (cont.) Bone Structure Diaphysis - (shaft) cylinder of compact bone to provide leverage Marrow Red Yellow Membranes Periosteum - external sheath that covers bone Endosteum - thin lining of marrow cavity Tissues Compact - outer shell of long bone Spongy - end of long bones and middle of all others
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Figure 7-2 The structure of a long bone. Flat bones - Cranial bones, ribs, sternum, scapula, and hip bone - Protect soft organs - Curved but wide and thin for muscle attachment Bones (cont.)
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Bones (cont.) Bone Tissue Osteoblasts build bone tissue. Osteocytes maintain bone tissue. Osteoclasts break down bone tissue (responsible for resorption).
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Figure 7-3 Bone tissue. Bones (cont.)
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Bones (cont.) Bone Growth, Maintenance, and Repair Long bone formation Epiphyseal plates Bone resorption Osteoclasts resorb bone tissue Types of bone cells Osteocytes maintain and repair the existing bone matrix Osteoclasts resorb bone tissue Ossification is conversion of cartilage to bone
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Bones (cont.) Bone Growth, Maintenance, and Repair (cont.) Long bone formation Ossification is conversion of cartilage to bone. Cartilage begins to turn into bone. Epiphyseal plates develop across bone ends. Bones continue to lengthen. Bones stop lengthening. Bone resorption and formation continue.
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Bones (cont.) Bone Resorption Osteoclasts resorb bone tissue. Necessary for repair of bone injury. Bone tissue resorbed when the body needs its stored minerals.
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Bones (cont.) Bone Markings
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Figure 7-4 Sinuses.
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