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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to HUMAN
GEOGRAPHY Edited by
David Dorrell Ph.D. and Joseph P. Henderson Ph.D University System of Georgia
“Creating A More Educated Georgia” Blue Ridge | Cumming | Dahlonega | Gainesville | Oconee Copyright 2018 by University System of Georgia.
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Cover Photo by Atik Sulianami Contents
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHY 1 Joseph Henderson Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 1.1 Introduction 1.2 What is Geography? 1.3 Mapping the World 1.4 Where in the World am I? 1.5 How do I Describe Where I am? 1.6 Geographic Data Collection and Analysis 1.7 Changes in places: diffusion 1.8 The Human-Environment Relationship 1.9 Key Terms Defined 1.10 Works Consulted and Further Reading 1.11 Endnotes CHAPTER 2: POPULATION AND HEALTH 1
17 David Dorrell Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Thinking About Population 2.3 Population and development 2.4 Population is Dynamic 2.5 The Demographic Transition 2.6 Measuring the Impact of Population 2.7 Future Population 2.8 Geography of Health 2.9 Summary 2.10 Key Terms Defined 2.11 Works Consulted and Further Reading 2.12 Endnotes CHAPTER 3: MIGRATION 17
42 Todd Lindley Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 3.1 Migration and Geography: A (Very) Brief History 3.2 Definitions and Data 3.3 Global, National, Regional, and Local Patterns 42
46 3.4 Demographic Transition, Migration, and Political Policy
3.5 Culture, Globalization, and Economics of Migration in
the Twenty-first Century 3.6 The Future of Human Movement and Conclusion 3.7 Key Terms Defined 3.8 Works Consulted and Further Reading 3.9 Endnotes CHAPTER 4: FOLK CULTURE AND POPULAR CULTURE 54
64 Dominica Ramírez and David Dorrell Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 4.1 Introduction 4.2 The Cultural Landscape 4.3 Folk Culture 4.4 The Changing Cultural Landscape 4.5 Popular Culture 4.6 The Interface Between the Local and the Global 4.7 Global Culture 4.8 Resistance to Popular Culture 4.9 Summary 4.10 Key Terms Defined 4.11 Works Consulted and Further Reading 4.12 Endnotes CHAPTER 5: THE GEOGRAPHY OF LANGUAGE 64
81 Arnulfo G. Ramírez Student Learning Outcomes 81
Chapter Outline 81
5.1 Introduction 82
5.2 Language and its Relationship to Culture 82
5.3 Classification and Distribution of Languages 85
5.4 Language in the Physical, Business and Digital Worlds 96
5.5 Summary 102
5.6 Key Terms Defined 103
5.7 Works Consulted and Further Reading 104
5.8 Endnotes 105
CHAPTER 6: RELIGION 107 David Dorrell Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 6.1 Introduction 107
6.8 Overview of Major Religions Diffusion of Major Religions Religious Conflict Summary Key Terms Defined Works Consulted and Further Reading Endnotes CHAPTER 7: ETHNICITY AND RACE 112
127 David Dorrell Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 7.1 What are Ethnicity and Race? 7.2 Relevance of Race and Ethnicity in the United States 7.3 Ethnicities in the United States 7.4 Relevance of Race and Ethnicity in Other Places 7.5 Summary 7.6 Key Terms Defined 7.7 Works Consulted and Further Reading 7.8 Endnotes CHAPTER 8: POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 127
147 Joseph Henderson Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 8.1 Introduction 8.2 How Political Space is Organized 8.3 Cooperation Between States 8.4 Boundaries and Boundary Disputes 8.5 The Electoral Process 8.6 Key Terms Defined 8.7 Works Consulted and Further Reading 8.8 Endnotes 147
159 CHAPTER 9: DEVELOPMENT AND WEALTH 160 Todd Lindley Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 9.1 Development and Geography: An Introduction 9.2 Important Terms & Concepts 9.3 Global, National, Regional, and Local Patterns 9.4 Rostow’s Stages of Growth and Political Policy 9.5 New Models of Development 160
179 9.6 Conclusion 9.7 Key Terms Defined 9.8 Works Consulted and Further Reading 182
188 CHAPTER 10: AGRICULTURE AND FOOD 190 Georgeta Connor Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Agricultural Practices 10.3 Global Changes in Food Production and Consumption 10.4 Conclusion 10.5 Key Terms Defined 10.6 Works Consulted and Further Reading CHAPTER 11: INDUSTRY 190
216 David Dorrell and Todd Lindley Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Marx’s Tendency of The Rate of Profit to Fall 11.3 Factors for Location 11.4 The Expansion (and Eventual Decline) of Industry 11.5 Global Production 11.6 Summary 11.7 Key Terms Defined 11.8 Works Consulted and Further Reading 11.9 Endnotes CHAPTER 12: HUMAN SETTLEMENTS 216
236 Georgeta Connor Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Rural Settlement Patterns 12.3 Urbanization 12.4 Urban Patterns 12.5 Conclusion 12.6 Key Terms Defined 12.6 Works Consulted and Further Reading 12.7 Endnotes 236
262 CHAPTER 13: ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCES 263 Joseph Henderson Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Nonrenewable Energy Resources 13.3 Renewable Energy Sources 13.4 Pollution 13.5 Preservation of Natural Resources 13.6 Key Terms Defined 13.7 Works Consulted and Further Reading 263
275 1 Introduction to Geography
Joseph Henderson STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this section, the student will be able to:
1. Understand: the importance of maps and some tools used to create
2. Explain: the concept of places and how they are characterized from a
3. Describe: the various types of diffusion.
4. Connect: the discipline of geography with other academic disciplines. CHAPTER OUTLINE
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 Introduction
What is geography?
Mapping the world
Where in the world am I?
How do I describe where I am?
Geographic Data Gathering and Analysis
Changes in places: diffusion
The human-environment relationship
Key terms Defined
Works Consulted and Further Reading
Endnotes Page | 1 INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN GEOGR APHY INTRODUCTION TO GEOGR APHY 1.1 INTRODUCTION
Geography is a diverse discipline that has some sort of connection to most
every other academic discipline. This connection is the spatial perspective, which
essentially means if a phenomenon can be mapped, it has some kind of relationship
to geography. Studying the entire world is a fascinating subject, and geographical
knowledge is fundamental to a competent understanding of our world. In this
chapter, you will learn what geography is as well as some of the fundamental
concepts that underpin the discipline. These fundamental terms and concepts will
be interwoven throughout the text, so a sound understanding of these topics is
critical as you delve deeper into the chapters that follow. By the end of the chapter,
you will begin to think like a geographer. 1.2 WHAT IS GEOGRAPHY?
The Greek word geographos from which geography is derived, is literally
translated as writing (graphos) about the Earth (geo). Geography differs from the
discipline of geology because geology focuses mainly on the physical Earth and
the processes that formed and continue to shape it. On the other hand, geography
involves a much broader approach to examining the Earth, as it involves the study
of humans as well. As such, geography has two major subdivisions, human
(social science) and physical (natural science). This text focuses primarily
on human geography, but because the physical aspects affect humans and vice versa,
physical geography will not be completely excluded, but will receive less emphasis.
Geography is the study of the physical and environmental aspects of the world,
from a spatial perspective. As geographers study the Earth, the one element that
binds the discipline of geography and makes it unique is studying the Earth from
a spatial perspective. The spatial perspective means that the phenomenon you are
studying can be displayed on a map, so geography focuses on places around the
world. Geography, then, is a physical (or natural) and social science that asks
the fundamental questions, “What is where, and why?” Human geography is a
social science that focuses on people, where they live, their ways of life, and their
interactions in different places around the world. A simple example of a geographic
study in human geography would be where is the Hispanic population concentrated
in the U.S., and why? A physical geography research endeavor might ask where do
most hurricanes strike the U.S. coastline, and why? In addition, because the Earth
is dynamic, geographers also look at how places change through time, and why, so
there is a natural connection with history. 1.2.1 Geography and its relationship to other disciplines
Not only is there a connection between geography and history, but geography
is also related to a broad range of other academic disciplines (Figure 1.1). If you
examine Figure 1.1, you may find your own major on the outside margin of the Page | 2 INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN GEOGR APHY INTRODUCTION TO GEOGR APHY circle, with the corresponding subdiscipline in geography on the interior of the
circle. Again, if a phenomenon can be depicted on a map and studied from a spatial
perspective, it is geographical. A basic example would relate to the health sciences
or medical geography, the subfield of geography that focuses on the spatial patterns
of various aspects of health. For example, when the spread of a disease from its
source area is mapped, medical professionals can get a better idea of the causes of
a disease and the mechanisms of its transmission. Often, the understanding of
cultural practices or the environmental conditions (such as the habitat for a
mosquito-borne disease) can shed light on the process of how the disease operates.
Another example of how geography relates to other disciplines is in economic
geography, the subfield that examines the different economic activities in various
places, and how places interact economically. A fundamental concept in economic
studies is that the location of a business is often important to the success of that
business. If the business is located in close proximity to its clientele, for example,
the customers might be more likely to visit that restaurant, store, etc. on a regular
basis. A business owner would be wise to consult maps of both transportation
networks as well as the population of the customers to which they intend to cater. hy rap g
mo og Clim ato log y om orp ho gy log y GEOGRAPHY hy
Urban Studies Figure 1.1 | Geography Relationships
Geography and its relationship to other disciplines.1
Author | Corey Parson
Source | Original Work
License | CC BY-SA 4.0 Page | 3 log ge
Sc y rap
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Me olo Ge Economics Marine
Geography Ge Economic
Ge y De Political
Science INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN GEOGR APHY INTRODUCTION TO GEOGR APHY 1.3 MAPPING THE WORLD
Maps are fundamental to the discipline of geography and have been used
by humans since before 6,000 B.C. Today’s maps are much more sophisticated,
complex, and precise, and are used by many people who employ GPS mapping
systems in their vehicles. This technology allows motorists to navigate from placeto-place with relative ease, but the process by which these digital and other maps
are created is exceptionally complex.
Essentially, a map, which is a flat presentation of a place on Earth, is actually
depicting a curved surface. The Earth, which looks like a sphere, is technically an
oblate spheroid, which means that the “middle” of the Earth, around the equator,
is slightly wider, and the north/south pole axis is slightly shorter, than a perfect
sphere. When any curved surface is depicted on a flat surface, that process is
known as projection, and many types of map projections exist. A fundamental
characteristic of all maps is they involves projections, and all projections have
some sort of distortion inherent in them. The size, shape, distance, and direction of
objects are distorted to various degrees on maps. The reason this distortion occurs
can be visualized by simply imagining peeling an orange, and trying to flatten the Figure 1.2 | World Map
World Map with Mercator Projection.
Author | User “Strebe”
Source | Wikimedia Commons
License | CC BY-SA 3.0 Page | 4 INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN GEOGR APHY INTRODUCTION TO GEOGR APHY peel on a table. If you drew the continents on that orange before peeling it, the
continents would most certainly be distorted when you try to flatten the peel on
the table. This analogy does not precisely describe how projections are created; the
process is much more involved. However, the underlying principle still applies. An
example of distortion is shown on the map of the globe below (Figure 1.2). Note,
for example, in this Mercator projection that Greenland appears to be larger than
South America, although it is, in fact, much smaller.
Besides projections, another important characteristic of maps is the scale. The
scale of a map is a ratio of the length or distance on the map versus the length or
distance on the Earth or ground (actual). The amount of detail shown on a map
will vary based on the scale. For example, a map with a scale of 1:100,000 (which
means 1 in/cm on the map equals 1,000,000 in/cm on the ground) would show
much less detail than a map at a scale of 1:10,000 (Figure 1.3). Besides showing
scale as a ratio, it can also be presented as a bar graph or as a verbal statement.
Scale can also mean the spatial extent of some kind of phenomena. For example,
one could examine migration at the global, national, state, or local scale. By either
definition, however, each refers to the level of detail about the place that the
geographer is researching. Examining the world from different scales enables
different patterns and connections to emerge. Figure 1.3 | Comparison of Map Scales
The map on the left is a small scale map, showing a larger area. The map on the right is a large scale map, showing a smaller area.
Author | Corey Parson, Google Maps
Source | Google Maps
License | © Google Maps. Used with Permission. 1.4 WHERE IN THE WORLD AM I?
One of the most important pieces of information that maps provide is location.
Knowing precisely where a place is in the world is fundamental to geography.
Page | 5 INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN GEOGR APHY INTRODUCTION TO GEOGR APHY While one can define a location simply by using a street address, not all places on
Earth have such an address. Therefore, one of the basic ways to pinpoint a location
on the Earth is using the geographic grid. The geographic grid is comprised of
meridians and parallels, which are imaginary lines and arcs crisscrossing the
Earth’s surface. Meridians are half circles that connect the north and south poles,
and longitude refers to the numbering system for meridians. Parallels are
circles that encompass the Earth and are parallel to the equator, and the numbering
system for these circles is known as latitude (Figure 1.4). Where meridians and
parallels intersect at precise locations (points) on the Earth on the geographic grid,
a location can be known by its latitude and longitude. Figure 1.4 | Longitude and Latitude
The geographic grid comprised of meridians and parallels with longitude and latitude.
Author | User “Djexplo” and Corey Parson
Source | Wikimedia Commons
License | CC 0 A few meridians on Earth are of particular importance, one being the Prime
Meridian located at 0o longitude, which passes through Greenwich, England. The
other important meridian, called the International Date Line, follows roughly
along 180 o longitude, and this meridian is on the opposite side of the world from
the Prime Meridian (Figure 1.5). When a traveler crosses the International Date
Line, the day of the week instantaneously changes. When moving westward, the
day moves forward, and when traveling eastward, the date jumps backward one
day. Fortunately, the International Date Line is in the middle of the Pacific Ocean,
so disruptions to the daily calendar are minimal for most people in the world.
Moreover, the International Date Line does not precisely follow the 180 o longitude
line, and this accommodation allows countries and territories consisting of islands
that straddle 180 o longitude to share the same calendar date. Page | 6 INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN GEOGR APHY INTRODUCTION TO GEOGR APHY Figure 1.5 | Time Zones
This world map shows the international date line and global time zones.
Author | Central Intelligence Agency
Source | Wikimedia Commons
License | Public Domain 1.5 HOW DO I DESCRIBE WHERE I AM?
Defining a location by using the geographic grid is only part of the process of
describing a place. Geographers are primarily concerned with two ways of describing
a place: site and situation. Site refers to the physical characteristics, such as the
topography, vegetative cover, climatic conditions, and the like. Situation, on the
other hand, refers to the area surrounding the place, and is sometimes referred to
as relative location. In other words, where is this place relative to other places, and
how is it connected to its surroundings via transportation networks? New Orleans
provides an excellent example of site versus situation. The site of New Orleans is
not ideal for a city, as it lies below sea level and is prone to flooding. However, the
situation of New Orleans is much better in that New Orleans is connected to large
portion of the Mississippi River’s network of navigable waterways while also being
close to the Gulf of Mexico and convenient to coastal traffic. Hence, the situation of
New Orleans is why the city has not long since been abandoned, despite catastrophic
flooding such as during Hurricane Katrina in 2005. As we examine various places
around the world, both site and situation are key considerations in determining
the “why” of where a place is located. 1.5.1 Regions
While site and situation can help describe a place, a broader view of the world
and the connections between places can be derived from t...
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