Intro to Human Geography Book.pdf - Introduction to HUMAN GEOGRAPHY Edited by David Dorrell Ph.D and Joseph P Henderson Ph.D University System of

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to HUMAN GEOGRAPHY Edited by David Dorrell Ph.D. and Joseph P. Henderson Ph.D University System of Georgia “Creating A More Educated Georgia” Blue Ridge | Cumming | Dahlonega | Gainesville | Oconee Copyright 2018 by University System of Georgia. Introduction to Human Geography is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. This license allows you to remix, tweak, and build upon this work, even commercially, as long as you credit this original source for the creation. If you reuse this content elsewhere, in order to comply with the attribution requirements of the license please attribute the original source to the University System of Georgia. NOTE: The above copyright license which University System of Georgia uses for their original content does not extend to or include content which was accessed and incorporated, and which is licensed under various other CC Licenses, such as ND licenses. Nor does it extend to or include any Special Permissions which were granted to us by the rightsholders for our use of their content. To determine copyright status of any content please refer to the bibliographies and appendices for original source information to further research specific copyright licenses. Image Disclaimer: All images and figures in this book are believed to be (after a reasonable investigation) either public domain or carry a compatible Creative Commons license. If you are the copyright owner of images in this book and you have not authorized the use of your work under these terms, please contact the University of North Georgia Press at [email protected] to have the content removed. This title is a product of an Affordable Learning Georgia Textbook Transformation grant. Produced by the University System of Georgia Cover Design and Layout Design by Corey Parson Cover Photo by Atik Sulianami Contents CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHY 1 Joseph Henderson Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 1.1 Introduction 1.2 What is Geography? 1.3 Mapping the World 1.4 Where in the World am I? 1.5 How do I Describe Where I am? 1.6 Geographic Data Collection and Analysis 1.7 Changes in places: diffusion 1.8 The Human-Environment Relationship 1.9 Key Terms Defined 1.10 Works Consulted and Further Reading 1.11 Endnotes CHAPTER 2: POPULATION AND HEALTH 1 1 2 2 4 5 7 10 12 12 14 15 16 17 David Dorrell Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Thinking About Population 2.3 Population and development 2.4 Population is Dynamic 2.5 The Demographic Transition 2.6 Measuring the Impact of Population 2.7 Future Population 2.8 Geography of Health 2.9 Summary 2.10 Key Terms Defined 2.11 Works Consulted and Further Reading 2.12 Endnotes CHAPTER 3: MIGRATION 17 18 19 21 25 26 32 33 35 35 38 38 39 40 42 Todd Lindley Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 3.1 Migration and Geography: A (Very) Brief History 3.2 Definitions and Data 3.3 Global, National, Regional, and Local Patterns 42 42 43 43 46 3.4 Demographic Transition, Migration, and Political Policy 3.5 Culture, Globalization, and Economics of Migration in the Twenty-first Century 3.6 The Future of Human Movement and Conclusion 3.7 Key Terms Defined 3.8 Works Consulted and Further Reading 3.9 Endnotes CHAPTER 4: FOLK CULTURE AND POPULAR CULTURE 54 56 58 59 61 63 64 Dominica Ramírez and David Dorrell Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 4.1 Introduction 4.2 The Cultural Landscape 4.3 Folk Culture 4.4 The Changing Cultural Landscape 4.5 Popular Culture 4.6 The Interface Between the Local and the Global 4.7 Global Culture 4.8 Resistance to Popular Culture 4.9 Summary 4.10 Key Terms Defined 4.11 Works Consulted and Further Reading 4.12 Endnotes CHAPTER 5: THE GEOGRAPHY OF LANGUAGE 64 65 66 69 72 73 74 77 77 78 78 79 80 80 81 Arnulfo G. Ramírez Student Learning Outcomes 81 Chapter Outline 81 5.1 Introduction 82 5.2 Language and its Relationship to Culture 82 5.3 Classification and Distribution of Languages 85 5.4 Language in the Physical, Business and Digital Worlds 96 5.5 Summary 102 5.6 Key Terms Defined 103 5.7 Works Consulted and Further Reading 104 5.8 Endnotes 105 CHAPTER 6: RELIGION 107 David Dorrell Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 6.1 Introduction 107 107 108 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 Overview of Major Religions Diffusion of Major Religions Religious Conflict Summary Key Terms Defined Works Consulted and Further Reading Endnotes CHAPTER 7: ETHNICITY AND RACE 112 120 123 124 124 124 125 127 David Dorrell Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 7.1 What are Ethnicity and Race? 7.2 Relevance of Race and Ethnicity in the United States 7.3 Ethnicities in the United States 7.4 Relevance of Race and Ethnicity in Other Places 7.5 Summary 7.6 Key Terms Defined 7.7 Works Consulted and Further Reading 7.8 Endnotes CHAPTER 8: POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 127 127 128 132 136 140 144 144 145 146 147 Joseph Henderson Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 8.1 Introduction 8.2 How Political Space is Organized 8.3 Cooperation Between States 8.4 Boundaries and Boundary Disputes 8.5 The Electoral Process 8.6 Key Terms Defined 8.7 Works Consulted and Further Reading 8.8 Endnotes 147 147 148 148 150 153 155 157 158 159 CHAPTER 9: DEVELOPMENT AND WEALTH 160 Todd Lindley Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 9.1 Development and Geography: An Introduction 9.2 Important Terms & Concepts 9.3 Global, National, Regional, and Local Patterns 9.4 Rostow’s Stages of Growth and Political Policy 9.5 New Models of Development 160 160 161 162 165 176 179 9.6 Conclusion 9.7 Key Terms Defined 9.8 Works Consulted and Further Reading 182 183 188 CHAPTER 10: AGRICULTURE AND FOOD 190 Georgeta Connor Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Agricultural Practices 10.3 Global Changes in Food Production and Consumption 10.4 Conclusion 10.5 Key Terms Defined 10.6 Works Consulted and Further Reading CHAPTER 11: INDUSTRY 190 190 191 192 203 208 209 211 216 David Dorrell and Todd Lindley Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Marx’s Tendency of The Rate of Profit to Fall 11.3 Factors for Location 11.4 The Expansion (and Eventual Decline) of Industry 11.5 Global Production 11.6 Summary 11.7 Key Terms Defined 11.8 Works Consulted and Further Reading 11.9 Endnotes CHAPTER 12: HUMAN SETTLEMENTS 216 217 217 222 222 228 229 233 234 234 235 236 Georgeta Connor Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Rural Settlement Patterns 12.3 Urbanization 12.4 Urban Patterns 12.5 Conclusion 12.6 Key Terms Defined 12.6 Works Consulted and Further Reading 12.7 Endnotes 236 236 237 237 243 250 257 258 260 262 CHAPTER 13: ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCES 263 Joseph Henderson Student Learning Outcomes Chapter Outline 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Nonrenewable Energy Resources 13.3 Renewable Energy Sources 13.4 Pollution 13.5 Preservation of Natural Resources 13.6 Key Terms Defined 13.7 Works Consulted and Further Reading 263 263 264 264 265 267 273 275 275 1 Introduction to Geography Joseph Henderson STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this section, the student will be able to: 1. Understand: the importance of maps and some tools used to create them. 2. Explain: the concept of places and how they are characterized from a spatial perspective. 3. Describe: the various types of diffusion. 4. Connect: the discipline of geography with other academic disciplines. CHAPTER OUTLINE 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 Introduction What is geography? Mapping the world Where in the world am I? How do I describe where I am? Geographic Data Gathering and Analysis Changes in places: diffusion The human-environment relationship Key terms Defined Works Consulted and Further Reading Endnotes Page | 1 INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN GEOGR APHY INTRODUCTION TO GEOGR APHY 1.1 INTRODUCTION Geography is a diverse discipline that has some sort of connection to most every other academic discipline. This connection is the spatial perspective, which essentially means if a phenomenon can be mapped, it has some kind of relationship to geography. Studying the entire world is a fascinating subject, and geographical knowledge is fundamental to a competent understanding of our world. In this chapter, you will learn what geography is as well as some of the fundamental concepts that underpin the discipline. These fundamental terms and concepts will be interwoven throughout the text, so a sound understanding of these topics is critical as you delve deeper into the chapters that follow. By the end of the chapter, you will begin to think like a geographer. 1.2 WHAT IS GEOGRAPHY? The Greek word geographos from which geography is derived, is literally translated as writing (graphos) about the Earth (geo). Geography differs from the discipline of geology because geology focuses mainly on the physical Earth and the processes that formed and continue to shape it. On the other hand, geography involves a much broader approach to examining the Earth, as it involves the study of humans as well. As such, geography has two major subdivisions, human (social science) and physical (natural science). This text focuses primarily on human geography, but because the physical aspects affect humans and vice versa, physical geography will not be completely excluded, but will receive less emphasis. Geography is the study of the physical and environmental aspects of the world, from a spatial perspective. As geographers study the Earth, the one element that binds the discipline of geography and makes it unique is studying the Earth from a spatial perspective. The spatial perspective means that the phenomenon you are studying can be displayed on a map, so geography focuses on places around the world. Geography, then, is a physical (or natural) and social science that asks the fundamental questions, “What is where, and why?” Human geography is a social science that focuses on people, where they live, their ways of life, and their interactions in different places around the world. A simple example of a geographic study in human geography would be where is the Hispanic population concentrated in the U.S., and why? A physical geography research endeavor might ask where do most hurricanes strike the U.S. coastline, and why? In addition, because the Earth is dynamic, geographers also look at how places change through time, and why, so there is a natural connection with history. 1.2.1 Geography and its relationship to other disciplines Not only is there a connection between geography and history, but geography is also related to a broad range of other academic disciplines (Figure 1.1). If you examine Figure 1.1, you may find your own major on the outside margin of the Page | 2 INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN GEOGR APHY INTRODUCTION TO GEOGR APHY circle, with the corresponding subdiscipline in geography on the interior of the circle. Again, if a phenomenon can be depicted on a map and studied from a spatial perspective, it is geographical. A basic example would relate to the health sciences or medical geography, the subfield of geography that focuses on the spatial patterns of various aspects of health. For example, when the spread of a disease from its source area is mapped, medical professionals can get a better idea of the causes of a disease and the mechanisms of its transmission. Often, the understanding of cultural practices or the environmental conditions (such as the habitat for a mosquito-borne disease) can shed light on the process of how the disease operates. Another example of how geography relates to other disciplines is in economic geography, the subfield that examines the different economic activities in various places, and how places interact economically. A fundamental concept in economic studies is that the location of a business is often important to the success of that business. If the business is located in close proximity to its clientele, for example, the customers might be more likely to visit that restaurant, store, etc. on a regular basis. A business owner would be wise to consult maps of both transportation networks as well as the population of the customers to which they intend to cater. hy rap g mo og Clim ato log y om orp ho gy log y GEOGRAPHY hy Planning and Urban Studies Figure 1.1 | Geography Relationships Geography and its relationship to other disciplines.1 Author | Corey Parson Source | Original Work License | CC BY-SA 4.0 Page | 3 log ge Bio Urban Geography al dic y Me raph og Ge h alt He nces e i Sc y rap og ral vio ha raphy Be og Ge y log ho c Psy Hi Ge storic og rap al hy His tor y Bio rol teo Me olo Ge Economics Marine Geography Ge Economic Geography Marine Science ion lat pu raphy o P og Ge Political Geography nd ya y log log cio po So hro t An ral ltu Cu ology Ge y De Political Science INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN GEOGR APHY INTRODUCTION TO GEOGR APHY 1.3 MAPPING THE WORLD Maps are fundamental to the discipline of geography and have been used by humans since before 6,000 B.C. Today’s maps are much more sophisticated, complex, and precise, and are used by many people who employ GPS mapping systems in their vehicles. This technology allows motorists to navigate from placeto-place with relative ease, but the process by which these digital and other maps are created is exceptionally complex. Essentially, a map, which is a flat presentation of a place on Earth, is actually depicting a curved surface. The Earth, which looks like a sphere, is technically an oblate spheroid, which means that the “middle” of the Earth, around the equator, is slightly wider, and the north/south pole axis is slightly shorter, than a perfect sphere. When any curved surface is depicted on a flat surface, that process is known as projection, and many types of map projections exist. A fundamental characteristic of all maps is they involves projections, and all projections have some sort of distortion inherent in them. The size, shape, distance, and direction of objects are distorted to various degrees on maps. The reason this distortion occurs can be visualized by simply imagining peeling an orange, and trying to flatten the Figure 1.2 | World Map World Map with Mercator Projection. Author | User “Strebe” Source | Wikimedia Commons License | CC BY-SA 3.0 Page | 4 INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN GEOGR APHY INTRODUCTION TO GEOGR APHY peel on a table. If you drew the continents on that orange before peeling it, the continents would most certainly be distorted when you try to flatten the peel on the table. This analogy does not precisely describe how projections are created; the process is much more involved. However, the underlying principle still applies. An example of distortion is shown on the map of the globe below (Figure 1.2). Note, for example, in this Mercator projection that Greenland appears to be larger than South America, although it is, in fact, much smaller. Besides projections, another important characteristic of maps is the scale. The scale of a map is a ratio of the length or distance on the map versus the length or distance on the Earth or ground (actual). The amount of detail shown on a map will vary based on the scale. For example, a map with a scale of 1:100,000 (which means 1 in/cm on the map equals 1,000,000 in/cm on the ground) would show much less detail than a map at a scale of 1:10,000 (Figure 1.3). Besides showing scale as a ratio, it can also be presented as a bar graph or as a verbal statement. Scale can also mean the spatial extent of some kind of phenomena. For example, one could examine migration at the global, national, state, or local scale. By either definition, however, each refers to the level of detail about the place that the geographer is researching. Examining the world from different scales enables different patterns and connections to emerge. Figure 1.3 | Comparison of Map Scales The map on the left is a small scale map, showing a larger area. The map on the right is a large scale map, showing a smaller area. Author | Corey Parson, Google Maps Source | Google Maps License | © Google Maps. Used with Permission. 1.4 WHERE IN THE WORLD AM I? One of the most important pieces of information that maps provide is location. Knowing precisely where a place is in the world is fundamental to geography. Page | 5 INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN GEOGR APHY INTRODUCTION TO GEOGR APHY While one can define a location simply by using a street address, not all places on Earth have such an address. Therefore, one of the basic ways to pinpoint a location on the Earth is using the geographic grid. The geographic grid is comprised of meridians and parallels, which are imaginary lines and arcs crisscrossing the Earth’s surface. Meridians are half circles that connect the north and south poles, and longitude refers to the numbering system for meridians. Parallels are circles that encompass the Earth and are parallel to the equator, and the numbering system for these circles is known as latitude (Figure 1.4). Where meridians and parallels intersect at precise locations (points) on the Earth on the geographic grid, a location can be known by its latitude and longitude. Figure 1.4 | Longitude and Latitude The geographic grid comprised of meridians and parallels with longitude and latitude. Author | User “Djexplo” and Corey Parson Source | Wikimedia Commons License | CC 0 A few meridians on Earth are of particular importance, one being the Prime Meridian located at 0o longitude, which passes through Greenwich, England. The other important meridian, called the International Date Line, follows roughly along 180 o longitude, and this meridian is on the opposite side of the world from the Prime Meridian (Figure 1.5). When a traveler crosses the International Date Line, the day of the week instantaneously changes. When moving westward, the day moves forward, and when traveling eastward, the date jumps backward one day. Fortunately, the International Date Line is in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, so disruptions to the daily calendar are minimal for most people in the world. Moreover, the International Date Line does not precisely follow the 180 o longitude line, and this accommodation allows countries and territories consisting of islands that straddle 180 o longitude to share the same calendar date. Page | 6 INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN GEOGR APHY INTRODUCTION TO GEOGR APHY Figure 1.5 | Time Zones This world map shows the international date line and global time zones. Author | Central Intelligence Agency Source | Wikimedia Commons License | Public Domain 1.5 HOW DO I DESCRIBE WHERE I AM? Defining a location by using the geographic grid is only part of the process of describing a place. Geographers are primarily concerned with two ways of describing a place: site and situation. Site refers to the physical characteristics, such as the topography, vegetative cover, climatic conditions, and the like. Situation, on the other hand, refers to the area surrounding the place, and is sometimes referred to as relative location. In other words, where is this place relative to other places, and how is it connected to its surroundings via transportation networks? New Orleans provides an excellent example of site versus situation. The site of New Orleans is not ideal for a city, as it lies below sea level and is prone to flooding. However, the situation of New Orleans is much better in that New Orleans is connected to large portion of the Mississippi River’s network of navigable waterways while also being close to the Gulf of Mexico and convenient to coastal traffic. Hence, the situation of New Orleans is why the city has not long since been abandoned, despite catastrophic flooding such as during Hurricane Katrina in 2005. As we examine various places around the world, both site and situation are key considerations in determining the “why” of where a place is located. 1.5.1 Regions While site and situation can help describe a place, a broader view of the world and the connections between places can be derived from t...
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