biology study notes book1.docx - Ch2 Organisms...

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Ch2 Organisms: Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acid (organic) minerals, water (inorganic) Water: Important food substance, no energy value, 65% of human body weight 1.solvent to dissolve chemical – during gas exchange, medium for chemical reaction 2.medium for transportation –blood plasma 90% water ; carries nutrients, dissolved gas, wastes, hormones 3.reactant –photosynthesis, hydrolytic reactions (break down large molecules to small molecules by addition of water eg.digestion) 4.cooling agent –high specific latent heat of vaporization; absorb heat (sweating transpiration) 5.temperature regulator –high specific heat capacity; provide thermally stable environment 6.supporting agent –tugid cells in young seedlings, hydroskeleton , high density of water provides buoyancy 7.dilute waste 8.lubricant mineral: no energy value
calcium structural components of bones and teeth, helps muscle contraction, helps blood clotting, helps transmit nerve impulse milk, cheese, green leafy vegie rickets, osteoporosis, slow blood clot at wounds, haemorrhage iron forming haemoglobin liver, beef, egg anaemia sodium water balance table salt chloride water balance, forming hydrochloric acid table salt magnesium component of chlorophyll in plants chlorosis nitrogen (nitrates/ammonium ions for plants) component of protein, component of nucleic acid chlorosis and stunt growth
phosphorus (phosphate ions) component of nucleic acid(building block of DNA,RNA), cell membrane (phospholipid), ATP, coenzymes poor growth, purple colouring leaves Carbohydrat es Cx(H2O)y Monosacchari des C6H12O6 Disaccharid es C12H22O11 Polysacchari es examples Glucose ,fructose Galactose Reducing sugar Sucrose, maltose, lactose Reducing sugar except sucrose Starch(strag in plants), cellulose(pla t cell wall), glycogen (storage in animals) Property Sweet, Soluble in water, Absorbed directly in small intestine Sweet, soluble in water, Digestion is needed Not sweet, not soluble, digestion is needed Food test Test for glucose with clinistix paper (pink to blue) Benedicts test (blue to red precipitate) Benedicts test Iodine test (brown to dark blue)
Lipids C, H, O (H:O>2:1) Protein C,H,O,N, (S) Basic unit is amino acid Function: form new cells, growth and repair, make enzymes, antibodies, hormones, source of energy Food test: albustix paper from yellow to green Nucleic acid C,H,O,N,P Deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid Heredity and protein synthesis triglyceride s phospholipi ds steroids Glycerol+3 fatty acids Glycerol+2 fatty acid+ phosphate group Highly complexed Energy reserve, insulating layer, shock absorber Component of cell membrane Cholesterol: Make cell membrane, bile salt, steroid hormone, vitamin D Grease spot test
Components: 1.5-carbon sugar (deoxyribose, ribose) 2.nitrogenous base (A,T,G,C/ A,U,G,C) 3.phosphate group DNA: 2 polynucleotide chain; double helix
Ch3 Transmission microscope 2D; scanning electron microscope 3D Cell theory 1.Cell is the basic unit of life 2.Cells arise from pre-existing cells

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