his20051013 - Histology Lecture Notes Cell Theory 13.10.05...

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Histology Lecture Notes 13.10.05 Cell Theory - Cells are morphological and physiological units of all living organisms. - Properties of given organism depend on those of its individual cells - Cells originate only from other cells and continuity is maintained through the genetic material - Smallest unit of the life is the cell 2 Classifications of cells: Prokaryota (bacteria, protozoa) Eukaryota (fungi, plants, animal, and human) Cell is composed of 2 basic parts: Cytoplasm Nucleus Cellular functions in some specialized cells: Function Specialized Cell(s) Movement Muscle cell Synthesis and secretion of enzymes Pancreatic acinar cells Synthesis and secretion of mucous substances Mucous-gland cells Synthesis and secretion of steroids Some adrenal gland, testis, and ovary cells Ion transport Cells of the kidney and salivary gland ducts Intracellular digestion Macrophages and some white blood cells Transformation of physical and chemical stimuli into nervous impulses Sensory cells Metabolite absorption Cells of the intestine Cytoplasm: Plasma membrane – Outermost component of the cell, separating the cytoplasm from its extracellular environment Integrins – Protein inside the plasma membrane that are linked to cytoplasmic cytoskeletal filaments and to extracellular molecules Cytosol – Matrix in cytoplasm, embedded the organelles, cytoskeleton, and deposits of carbohydrates, lipids, and pigments Cytoskeleton – Composed of microtubules, actin filaments. Mechanical support, maintains shape, and cell motility Plasma Membrane (see photo below) - composed of Phospholipids, Cholesterol, Proteins, and chains of oligosaccharides covalently linked to phospholipids and protein molecules - selective barrier that regulates the passage of certain materials into and out of the cell and facilitates the transport of specific molecules - 7.5-10nm in thickness
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