Lipidssemhandouts - FATTY ACIDS(FA SIMPLE AND COMPLEX...

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    FATTY ACIDS (FA) SIMPLE AND COMPLEX LIPIDS Dicarboxylic acids, ketone bodies.
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    Chemically, lipids are an extremely diverse group of molecules .  
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    Fatty acids Biological important ones are usually linear molecules with an even number of carbon atoms Fatty acids are numbered using either arabic numbers (COOH is 1) or the Greek alphabet (COOH is not given a symbol; adjacent carbon atom are α, β , γ, etc) A few fatty acids with an α-OH group are produced and used structurally by humans
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    Fatty acids Fatty acids that occur in living systems normally contain an even number of carbon atoms , the hydrocarbon chain is usually unbranched and the length of the chain usually ranges from 12 to 24 carbons. Fatty acids that contain no carbon-carbon double bonds are termed saturated fatty acids ; those that contain double bonds are unsaturated fatty acids . Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds
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    A double bond is indicated by Δn , where n is a number of the first carbon of the bond Since fatty acids are elongated in vivo from the carboxyl end, biochemists use alternate terminology to assign these fatty acids to families Omega ( ω ) minus x ( or n-x ), where x is the number of carbon atoms from the methyl end where the double bond is first encountered. Omega families of fatty acids
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    Omega-6 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids The first double bond: In vegetable oils is at carbon 6 ( omega-6 ). In fish oils is at carbon 3 ( omega-3 ).
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    Omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids
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    Biologically significant reactions of unsaturated fatty acids are Reduction:  – CH =CH + XH 2  - CH 2 CH +  X Addition of water :  – CH =CH   +  H 2 O       -CH(OH) CH 2 Oxidation R-CH=CH-R’     R-CHO   +  R’CHO
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    Reactions of Lipid Peroxidation . Peroxidation of membrane lipid seriously impairs membrane function. Lipid peroxidation is a radical- initiated chain reaction that is self- propagating in cellular membranes. The products of lipid peroxidation are easily detected in blood plasma and have been used as a measure of oxidative stress. The most commonly measured product is malondialdehyde
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    MOST FATTY ACIDS IN HUMANS OCCUR AS TRIACYLGLYCEROLS (TAG) Fatty acids occur primarily as esters of glycerol, when they are stored for future utilization In TAG all three hydroxyl groups on the glycerol are esterified with a fatty acid Glycerol
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    Soaps are: Salts of fatty acids.
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