CarbSemhanouts - CARBOHYDRATES Monosaccharides...

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    Monosaccharides Disaccharides CARBOHYDRATES
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    Carbohydrates are carbon compounds that contain large quantities of hydroxyl groups. The simplest carbohydrates also contain either an aldehyde moiety (these are termed polyhydroxyaldehydes ) or a ketone moiety ( polyhydroxyketones ).
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    Characteristic chemical features of carbohydrates : (1) the existence of at least one and often two or more asymmetric centers, (2) the ability to exist either in linear or ring structures, (3) the capacity to form polymeric structures via glycosidic bonds, and (4) the potential to form multiple hydrogen bonds with water or other molecules in their environment.
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    Carbohydrates classification The monosaccharides are also called simple sugars and have the formula (CH 2 O) n . Monosaccharides - simple sugars, with multiple hydroxyl groups. Based on the number of carbons (e.g., 3, 4, 5, or 6) a monosaccharide is a triose, tetrose, pentose, or hexose, etc.
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    Monosaccharides consist typically of three to seven carbon atoms and are described either as aldoses or ketoses , depending on whether the molecule contains an aldehyde function or a ketone group
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    The structures and names of a family of aldoses with three, four, five, and six carbons.
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    The structures and names of a family of ketoses with three, four, five, and six carbons .
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    Hexoses are the most abundant sugars in nature. Nevertheless, sugars from all these classes are important in metabolism.
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    Stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other are called enantiomers , or sometimes enantiomeric pairs. Pairs of isomers that have opposite configurations at one or more of the chiral centers but that are not mirror images of each other are called diastereomers or diastereomeric pairs .
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    Fischer projection of glyceraldehyde
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    GLUCOSE
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    Sugar molecules that differ in configuration at only one several chiral centers are called epimers D-Galactose Mannose and galactose are epimers of D-glucose (at C-2 and C-4, respectively) .
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    Aldose – ketose interconversion ( keto-enol tautomeric shifts).
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