WK6AssgnSettleJ.docx - Running Head ASTHMA 1 Asthma Jessica N Settle NURS 6501N-21 Advanced Pathophysiology Walden University October 5 2019 ASTHMA 2

WK6AssgnSettleJ.docx - Running Head ASTHMA 1 Asthma Jessica...

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Running Head: ASTHMA 1 Asthma Jessica N. Settle NURS 6501N-21 Advanced Pathophysiology Walden University October 5, 2019
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ASTHMA 2 Asthma Asthma is a chronic disorder with periods of acute exacerbation that causes inflammation in the bronchial mucosa (Huether & McCance, 2017). A variety of phenotypes suggest genetic and environmental factors play a role in the pathophysiology of the disease, which affects both adults and children; however, adults are affected three times as often. The pediatric population accounts for 6.8 million cases, and adults account for 18.7 million cases (Hammer & McPhee, 2019; Huether & McCance, 2017). African Americans have a higher mortality rate than Caucasian Americans. The purpose of this paper is to describe the pathophysiology of chronic asthma, and the acute exacerbation phase of asthma, the arterial blood gas (ABG) changes during an asthma exacerbation, and how ethnicity plays a role in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of these disorders. Chronic Asthma and Acute Asthma Exacerbation Asthma is a chronic disorder with periods of acute exacerbation that causes inflammation in the bronchial mucosa, which leads to an excessive bronchial response, airway constriction, and a reversible obstruction to airflow. Chronic asthma and acute exacerbation of asthma often present with the same symptoms, such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and cough (Hammer & McPhee, 2019). Following an increased reaction to the exposure of an allergen or stimuli such as mold, dust, cigarette smoke, some medications, or food allergies to the airway epithelia, the immune response of inflammation is initiated by the body. This inflammation is caused, primarily, by the release of mast cells and eosinophils. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) attaches to mast cells. These local inflammatory cells trigger the release of leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and histamine, which cause
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ASTHMA 3 smooth muscle contraction, excess mucus production, vasodilation, and edema. Inflammation continues with the release of cytokines and chemokines, which trigger more airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (Hammer & McPhee, 2019).
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