ASTHMA2Asthma Asthma is a chronic disorder with periods of acute exacerbation that causes inflammationin the bronchial mucosa (Huether & McCance, 2017). A variety of phenotypes suggest genetic and environmental factors play a role in the pathophysiology of the disease, which affects both adults and children; however, adults are affected three times as often. The pediatric population accounts for 6.8 million cases, and adults account for 18.7 million cases (Hammer & McPhee, 2019; Huether & McCance, 2017). African Americans have a higher mortality rate than Caucasian Americans. The purpose of this paper is to describe the pathophysiology of chronic asthma, and the acute exacerbation phase of asthma, the arterial blood gas (ABG) changes duringan asthma exacerbation, and how ethnicity plays a role in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of these disorders.Chronic Asthma and Acute Asthma ExacerbationAsthma is a chronic disorder with periods of acute exacerbation that causes inflammationin the bronchial mucosa, which leads to an excessive bronchial response, airway constriction, and a reversible obstruction to airflow. Chronic asthma and acute exacerbation of asthma often present with the same symptoms, such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and cough (Hammer & McPhee, 2019).Following an increased reaction to the exposure of an allergen or stimuli such as mold, dust, cigarette smoke, some medications, or food allergies to the airway epithelia, the immune response of inflammation is initiated by the body. This inflammation is caused, primarily, by the release of mast cells and eosinophils. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) attaches to mast cells. These localinflammatory cells trigger the release of leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and histamine, which cause
ASTHMA3smooth muscle contraction, excess mucus production, vasodilation, and edema. Inflammation continues with the release of cytokines and chemokines, which trigger more airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (Hammer & McPhee, 2019).