His20051124 - Histology Chapter 8 Bone Nov 24 2005 Bone...

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Histology – Chapter 8 Bone Nov. 24, 2005 Bone General Classification Primary bone, woven (of fetal type) Secondary bone, lamellar (of adult type) Compact bone Spongy (trabecular) bone Figure 8—3. Events that occur during intramembranous ossification. Osteoblasts are synthesizing collagen, which forms a strand of matrix that traps cells. As this occurs, the osteoblasts gradually differentiate to become osteocytes. The lower part of the drawing shows an osteoblast being trapped in newly formed bone matrix. Bone, also called osseous tissue, (Latin: "os") is a type of hard endoskeletal connective tissue found in many vertebrate animals . Bones support body structures, protect internal organs , and (in conjunction with muscles ) facilitate movement ; are also involved with cell formation , calcium metabolism , and mineral storage . The bones of an animal are, collectively, known as the skeleton . Bone has a different composition than cartilage , and both are derived from mesoderm . In common parlance, cartilage can also be called "bone", certainly when referring to animals that only have cartilage as hard connective tissue, such as cartilaginous fish
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Histology – Chapter 8 Bone Nov. 24, 2005 ( Chondrichthyes ) like sharks . True bone is present in bony fish ( Osteichthyes ) and all tetrapods . There are several evolutionary alternatives to bone. These evolutionary solutions are not completely functionally analogous to bone. Exoskeletal protection is offered by shells , carapaces (consisting of calcium compounds or silica ) and chitinous exoskelotons . A true endoskeleton (that is, protective tissue derived from mesoderm) is also present in Echinoderms . Porifera (sponges) possess simple endoskeletons that consist of calcareous or siliceous spicules and a spongin fiber network. Bones and skeletons are studied in osteology . Bones can be prepared for study by several methods, such as maceration . Maceration is done by boiling fleshed bone with dish detergent and a little bleach until all large particles are off. The bones are then cleaned by hand, usually with a toothbrush and a degreaser. Structure
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Histology – Chapter 8 Bone Nov. 24, 2005 Bone is a relatively hard and lightweight composite material , formed mostly of calcium phosphate in the chemical arrangement termed calcium hydroxyapatite. It has relatively high compressive strength but poor tensile strength . While bone is essentially brittle, it does have a degree of significant elasticity contributed by its organic components (chiefly collagen ). Bone has an internal mesh -like structure, the density of which may vary at different points .
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