Spanish 275 Study Guide C2 - Cpitulo 2 Study Guide Seccin...

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Cápitulo 2 Study Guide Sección Gramatical: Ser 1. Ser means to be in the sense of to exist . Its primary function is to establish identity between the subject + a noun, a pronoun, or an infinitive used as a noun, in order to indicate who someone is or what something it. La protagonista del cuento es una niña. [The main character in the story is a little girl] Fue él quien me enseño la casa. [He was the one who showed me the house] 2. Ser is also used to indicate origin, ownership, material, or destination. De qué parte de Sudamérica eres? [From what part of South America are you?] Los soldaditos era de Gonza. [The toy soldiers were Gonza’s] 3. Ser has the meaning of to take place, happen. La exposición es en otra ciudad. [The exhibit is in another city] 4. Ser is the equivalent of to be in most impersonal expressions (i.e., when it is the subject of the English sentence). Thus, ser is used to tell the time of day, season, month, etc. Es tarde, son y alas siete y tengo quie escribir una composición. [I’s late, it’s already seven o’clock and I have to write a composition] Era verano y todas la ventanas estaban abiertas. [It was summertime and all fo the windows were open] 5. Ser , combined with the past participle, is used to form the passive voice when an agent is expressed or strongly implied. La casa fue diseñada por un arguitecto mexicano. [The house was designed by a Mexican architect] La casa era cuidada por un hombre uniformado. [The house was guarded by a uniformed man] 6. Ser , combined with an adjective, tells us some essential characteristic of a person or thing. Los girasols con anaranjados y grandes. [Sunflowers are orange and large] Cómo era la madre de la niña? [What was the girl’s mother like?] 7. Ser indicates the social group to which the subject belongs. Examples of social groups are: joven, rico, probra, Viejo, millionario, católico, socialista. Trades + professions also fall into this category. Aunque sus padres son millionarios, Julián es socialista. [Although his parents are millionaires, Julian is a socialist] En mi familia, todas la mujeres son médicas. [In my family, all of the women are medical doctors] Sección Gramatical: Estar
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*Unlike ser , estar never likes the subject with a predicate noun, pronoun, or infinitive. * Estar may be followed by a preposition, an adverb of place, a present participle, a past participle, or an adjective. 1. Estar expresses location, in which case it is usually followed by a preposition or an adverb.
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