Astronomy 10 - Fall 2006 - Filippenko - Midterm 1

Astronomy 10 - Fall 2006 - Filippenko - Midterm 1 - NOTE...

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Unformatted text preview: NOTE: Dreiser of igea‘lion3 has}; dt‘l‘f‘er on your exem- Be sure you HI-lSWer question #1 correctly [E points off if incorrect)! [l] rl‘he instructor of Astronomy C10 3' L355 CTflU, Fall Efiflfi |[i.o.1 this class} is Alex Filippeniio. I {b} Mark Foley. {c} Jessica Simpson. {d} Spiderwoman. {e} Isaac Newton. {2J®or F. We can determine the composition of the outer layers of a 'star by analysing the absorption lines in the star’s spectrum. I: E. —- 2 (I) [3] TWhich one of the following statements about eclipses is FALSE? {a} If the Moon’s orbital plane-around the Earth coincided exactly with Earth’s orbital plane around the Sun. there would be-one solar eclipse and one lunar eclipse each month. {b} A total solar eclipse in 1919 offered ”an opportunity to verify a prediction of Einstein’s general theory of relativity; the apparent positions of stars near the eclipsed Sun’s edge were compared with their true positions. to} Dining a total solar eclipse. it is safe to stare'at the Sun’s corona with the naked eye1 or through binoculars or a telescope. as long as you be sure to look away before totality begins and alter totality ends. As seen from a given point on Earth‘ a total lunar eclipse lasts about as long as a. total so ar eclipse. [e] If the Sun‘s physical diameter were 3 times larger than it is, and the Moonis distance from the Earth Were lfii its current distance. the Sun and Moon Would hare nearly equal mlg-ular sizes. making total solar eclipses still possible. [4} A star is moving toward the Earth with a Speed of 3th] lung’s. Which one of the following do you eXpEct to see in the star’s spectrum? Eel All spectral lines will be shifted by an equal number of Angstroms toward longer wavelengths. [bl All spectral lines will be shifted by an equal number of Angstroms toward shorter wavelengths. ® Spectral lines will be shifted by different ninnbers of Angstroms depending on where in the spectrum they occur. C. S" 4 it Eh _' “1.: [d] There will be no shift in the locations of spectral lines. Ab " C [e] Stars emit black—body radiation1 so we don’t expect to see any spectral lines+ flit : ’5‘ l". D L [5} Which one of the following could NOT be used to support the recent demotion of Pluto fridI_iiE{xi-Lingll planetary status? wowed-mull (a) Pluto‘s elliptical orbit is quite eccentric and well-inclined relative to the orbits of the other planets. [b] Pluto is far less massive than any other planet. [c] a swarm of objects similar to {though generally smaller than} Pluto orbits the Sun in the outer parts of the Solar Systeclzn1 in the region occupied by Pluto’s orbit. [ flail}, f‘ll‘“ lw” “ H“ l “we Unlike any other planet. Pluto has a moon that is very large compared to Plate itself. [e] At least one object larger than Pluto is known to orbit the Sun in the outer parts of the Solar System. so unless it is deemed to he a planet, Pluto shouldn’t be one either. {B}®or F. When we look at different stars in the night ”sky, we see then] as they were at different times in the past. because the speed of light is finiteand the star's are generally at different distances from us. {.5 - [3 Is: {'i‘) Which one of the following will NOT generate electromagnetic radiation? 55-35} @ An electron jumping from a lower energy level to a higher one in an atom. I{ } An eiectron jumping from a. higher energy level to a lower one in an atom. {c} A magnet being jerked hack and forth at an extremely high speed. {d} A charged particle oscillating {moving} back and forth. to} A solid, opaque object at a temperature of 41130 degrees Celsius. [8] T o Ganlu'la rays, having the highest linoWn frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum, consist of the highest—energy photons and therefore travel the fastest. {9] Which one of the following is NOT scientific evidence that supports the possibility that ancient life once existed {or still exists} on Mars? a] Bacteria-like structures and chemical evidence found in a Martian meteorite in Antarctica. Canals visible on the Martian surface from Earth via telescope. 'c} Ancient river beds and flood piains visihie on the Martian surface via satellite images. {(1} Evidence found hy NASA rovers that liquid water once existed on Mars; is} Detection of water ice on Mars from satellite data. {10} 1Which one of the following phenomena is NOT related to tidal forces? [a] The rising and falling of the ocean level twice each day on Earth. [12:] Active volcanoes on Io. [e] Prominent rings around Saturn. d] The fact that the Moon’s orbital period and rotational period are exactly the same. The fact that Mars has no large moons. {11] If two stars. Lauren-and Niels1 have the same luminosity hut Star Lauren’s surface temperature is twice that of Star Nick. then the radius of Star Lauren is ....... the radius of Star Nick. 3:3 as LL. - sf 1:3" _.. I . em)" {c} the same as Ln' F Ru TH RN {:1} 4 times 1 lie} 15 times —& --i-.. : (Rf...) __,’ f: .. _." “3 fie Re if ‘f [12] TlWith which of the following statements would Newton most likely DISAGREE? {a} The “constant" in Kepier's third law is not really a constant; it depends on the mass of the planet. {h} We can calculate the acceleration due-to gravity at the surface of a given planet knowing only the mass and radius of the planet. {c} A rock sliding along. the ground comes to rest not because rest is the most natural state. but rather because of frictional forces. _ {d} The force exerted by you on the Earth is the same as the force exerted by the Earth on you. @ H the gravitational force between the Earth-and the Moon were to suddenly disappear1 the Moon would fall toward Earth and collide With it. {lii}®:r F. fiver the course of a year. the entire celestial sphere is visihle from Earthis equator; but during the same time interval. only half of the celestial sphere is visihie from either one of Earth's two poles. C. E}— {3% (14] The great Emperor Eod. who lives on Pluto. watches each Astronomy Gill] lecture in nearly "real tilne," as soon as the weheast radio signals reneh him. Alexis disparaging oomrnents about Pluto not being a “true planet“ infuriate Zed1 and he immediately orders his Plutonian army to deseenrl upon Earth to seek vengeance! If the Plutonian spaceships travel at 3.11103 l-on If s [about 1% of the speed of light}. roughly how long after Alex’s Pluto lecture do the spaceships arrive? [Note that Earth is about 8 light-minutes Jfrom the Sum and Pluto is currently 3t] AU from Earth.) iii} Elioul‘fi. "ll-F Use; flew tr: (3:: h.u.)(s Min [14.0. = ”2&0 mtg : 11]”. J Jays. .— ‘HMH: ML; Mmrfijmfl m le'iu 2 weeks. -- i Ed]? :months. If v;o.el C.) '11 I t :1 GI. Lrhosse) _,-_~ ‘taa L'ry .i'féfadt‘hif fir e e rs. rs stat—ceases 1‘1 Her-f =|1Ayezoam;_ {15] Which one of the following statements about Earth's atmosphere and f or Earth’s temperature is TRUE? {a} The primm'y reason Earth is relatively warm is that inhaled radiation from the Sun heats Earth's surface directly. most IR us Ell-acted he; it'I-E.s:i-h1otpt~1m {Ii} The greenhouse effect is a Very bad thing; we would be far better off without any of it here on Earth. If Earth’s atmosphere had no clouds. which reflect visible sunlight1 then Earth’s average daytime surface temperature would he higher. h-ghcr albedo 4-? cooler ismefq‘i‘ur‘efi [d] Visible light from the Sun is reflected by the atmosphere, thereby heatingIr it. {c} Microwave radiation item the Sun heats Earth like a microwave eyen heats a potato. causing Earth to he relatively warm. {ls}@or F. If the mass of the Sun were larger hy a tactor of 4 and the semimajor axis of Earth‘s orbit around the Sun were unchanged. it would take the Earth half a year to complete . . '1 oneorh1t. MP1“ P»; _, P1“:- iii-RIM M V“ Hf RTW' G) :Jq {1?} Which one of the following statements about lunar phases is TRUE? [a] The new Moon is extremely hard to find. because it looks hlaek against the dark night sky, £5 ‘53 -' fi-EW Moon his?” up cal' Fatah-f- {h} aaa- viewing a total solar eclipse, that night you can read love poems to your significant other under a glorious full moon. to} The complete set of lunar phases oould not be understood in the Ptolemaie {Earth- ee tered} model. If tonight you see the first—quarter Moon. then two weeks from now you won't be able to see the Moon during the first few hours of the night. 113—533 [c] On the same date that you {in Berkeley} see a 'full moon. someone in India {roughly on the opposite side of the Earth] sees a new moon. {18] An electron of an atom of the imaginary element Ainherinn] has three energy leyels: E 2 U. E = 3‘ and E = '9. Suppose you know that the transition [min the highest energy let-rel to the middle energy level emits .a photon with J. 2: Eflflfl xi. What is the wavelength of a photon emitted in the transition from the middle energy leiFel to the lowest energy level? {so less t. he :-' a Lynn: A: "team" {h} 15cc i. H .. a . : : ___ is] scent. 5’ ‘55 F 3 3M“! X - 6m: a I sing; E ‘1 A i. at...” it} iiiiiit. CW We to“ “W> {19} T [email protected] The planet Mars is red1 and the planet Neptune is blue. Therefore, Neptune must he otter than Mars. {EU} “Finch one of the following statements about the inclination of Earth‘s rotation axis relative to its orbital axis is FALSE? a} It causes the seasons. It oauses the specific constellations visible at night to change over the course of a year. {C} It causes the number of daylight hours to change from summer to winter. {1:1} It causes the Sun’s rays to be more intense in the summer than in the winter. because the angle at which they come in changes. {e} It causes the Sun to rise at different locations on the horizon. over the course of the year. {21] An object inan elliptical orbit around the Sun moves fastest when fit) it is closest to the Sun. {43431 1] it-is‘ approaching the Sun. a a reeerling {tom the 51m. testers seems low til it is furthest from the Sun. e] it has just finished its post—aphelion cofthe. flp—Isa—aa—I-t :1 {22] T o1® Blank-body radiation [tom extremely hot objects peaks 1n the ultraviolet or even {3 K—ra‘y part of the speetriull so these objeots release essentially no visible light. ill-Sty l‘e-l' blasts ' ' [Sm-I‘M Emnt lbl‘i e'F .tglfi ll {‘33} ll 15 billion years [the approximate current age of the Universe] were eompresse into lil- months (i. e.. the Universe was born on J anuary 1 and today 1s December till then on the same scale oul Soles System [Whose age is about E:- billion years] )iormed around it steamer»? t= .. sir-mam ___‘ .-:. x 3 My ,5... W: (o) May 1. September 1. % October 1. I: [1 (H we'll-.5 #1?“ )er. 3t) {24] Whieh one-of the following features is common to all four of the Jovian planets in our Solar System? {a} They are smaller than the terrestrial planets. {b} They are composed primarily of heavy elements like iron and silicon. (.5 '" l l 3 I They rotate about their axes in a shorter amount of time than Earth does. l_ } They have only very thin. wispy rings. {e} They have few moons. {25} You have tried to observe a certain star cluster using- the telescope on the roof of Campbell Hall. but your image is faint and blurry. Which one of the following is NOT a good way to improve your observations? @ lnerease the tube length of your telescope to improve the light—gathering power. {in} Increase the diameter of your telescopeis mirror to improve the resolution {clarity}. at least on nights having a very non—turbulent atmosphere. [cl Put your telescope in spaee to avoid atmospheric turbulence.- [til Put your telescope in a darker region to decrease light pollution. [e] None of these is neeessary; the image quality that you get from the telescope on top of Campbell Hall is already the highest possible. End of Exa minatinn ...
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