Astronomy 10 - Fall 2006 - Filippenko - Midterm 2

Astronomy 10 - Fall 2006 - Filippenko - Midterm 2 - NU l...

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Unformatted text preview: NU l E" I Grain-“- DP “Prim-1 l'IU-‘I'I'a ela Four (is can may dd Piper“. Be sure yeu answer questien #1 correctly Iffi paints efi' if incerreet]! [l] l—Jan Perle-y. the Head G31 fur this class [Astreneniy Clt] f L555 CTEJU. Fall EEHJG] (it) is a. graduate student in astreneiny at UC Berkeley. {h} lives en a nmen erhiting Uranus. {El {1]} can't pussihly he human. because hefs made of pure iliehinrn and pluteniun‘c {el was hruught Lu Earth [rem the Metal during the .apelle landings in the early lS‘i’lls. is .'-1t‘.t11.‘-Llly a lJliilh'. rueh star in disguise. t2l 1r F. The carhen. exygen. calcium. irnn. and ether heavy elements in yeur htaly were created in stars and H11 pernevae leng age. hehu‘e the termatiun cf the Solar System. [3] 1|r‘l'hich ene ef the fettuwing statements about black heles is FflLSE? It is iinpessihle fer light tn nrhit a black hellc:1 because in a 1ramnnn. light travels only alung‘ Euclidean straight lines. [h _ 1LT- LE‘ _ 5‘01 {h} Black heles are net totally hlaek: they can "evalmrater hy a quantum precess invulving the emissien of particles trinn jlist rantsicle the event herisun. {c} it is lnissil'ile tn extract energy Eli'tilltl a retating black hele. {ill lt the Sun were to turn into a black hule having the same Inass. Earth's current urhit weuld he intaitected. [e] Even a relatively small ntije{;|.. like Earth. ceuld term a black hole if there 1ivere a way ’re compress it inte a small eueugh velume. [*1] 1.“r’hieh one (if the fullevving statements aheut extra—selar planet fil'JSE'l'VELlilfill techniques is FALSE? {a} The majerity of currently hnmvn extrarsnlar planets were diseevered with the Deppler— shift urethral. a?) In the Duplmler-stlift Illl"l'.l1:'.1tl._ the changing radial velucity e1. th$ extr_aL—sel211' Planet is Illeasuretl {ruin a series et spectra ut the extra—selar planet itself. FT”: _ IL” TDD .'.fl'n_ m 2.. _ cattle-e rug ul'L'U' I'T art-ails {e} The Brenner—shift inethed gives us enly the minimum pessihle mass Hf an exTfiiue-mlar planet. unless we have adrlitiunal inii'u'n‘iatien aheu I. the inclinatien til the planet's erhit. [Ill The transit met heurl requires the extra-solar phmet's urhit to he aligned clusely 1rvith eur line at siglu. [e] The transit method can sometimes give us infurma’rien ahead. the emnpnsitinn :rl' an extra— selar planet‘s atnmsphere. {Er} Which one at the feltewing sta’r.1.-tne.n’r.s aheut eelljsiens with Earth is TRUE? if the scarlet that cellidecl with Jupiter in 199st had instead cellitled with Earth. the impact. would have been very destructive. [h] Small metenreids that enter Earth s.1.11u'1s1:+here many times a day. releasing heat as they disintegrate. centrihute significantly ter the current episede of global warming. [c] The impact- that likely created the Mean alse destreyed much ef the life that existed an Earth at that time. including the dinesanrs. Ed] The Cretaceens{Tertiary extinctinu fullewing a cunnst llTlllE‘H’tt Elli :nillien years age Was eansert hy pelsenens iridium that the exclusion distributed inte Earth ’s atnmsehere. [e] Even if vv‘. diseevered all the uearuEarth nhjeets in the Euler System. we vamht have nu way at" larculirting when one might cellide with the Earth. ttil 'WlLieh one of the lhllowing statements about gannna—ray hursts is FALSE? {a} Most of them are prtiihahly assoeiaterl with the formation of a lJlEtL'l-t hole. {h} Most of them oeem' in distant galaxies. C3 " Z l l (i? The explosions emit ahont the same amount of energy in all directions. { jI The gmnma—ray einissien from a gamma—ray hurst eanuot he tleteetetl from the ground. Some gamma—ray bursts appear to he assoeiatetl with supernovae. {e t7}®or F. The eent-er of mass til s. hinary system might actually lie insirle one of the two lJt'Jf11EE-i. s a... The" t; a; — 541 (“we plum-til {8} Star .J'trnherls spectrum peaks at 25th] Angstroms. while Star Foster's speetruut pmth at fltltltl Angstrems. The luminosity of Star Amher is {$4 times that of Star Foster. Tlu-areiorrn the rarlius of Star Amher is [a} half that. of Star Foster. Tat- = ii SM“; F [h] the same as that of Star Foster. TF ‘l‘fi Ell} twiee that of Star Foster. 55‘ '1}. 5M _ l L s: l {d} hair times that of Star Foster. E = E I 1 ‘[ tel sixteen times that of Star Foster. 1 II. ___. 51-" j. 5:: R. “h RF LF lav {3'} T or@ Pulsars are thought. to he neutron stars that. periodieally grow higger and smaller : Il'l n1. 1 tune. thetehy getting hrinhtLr and {amt-er ‘t't-ll-l]. the sann..pt.t1od. .4: pfi : 2 RF ' pole..in dud: 'l'g I'r..l't'.-tlit.J-_‘|_ {11.3) Most of the. Sun‘s energy that is radiated int-u spam is reh':ased as G) thermal {nearly hlaelc—horly} T."isihte anti infirm-ed radiation from the photosphere. [h] 1.risilile ant] ultraviolet emissitiin-llne radiation from the. ehron‘msphere. (5.. the *4: -.w'-- 1-H- I he? . [(1] Pit—rays from the rerena. "T— _£"'“"l”" "E “N "'3 f "'“""t til} gallon-a rays from nuelear fusion in the sore. L-=_-—- “1-5 L‘s-'4" ‘ rte-u.“ He teem. {e} radio waves l'reni an intrdligent eivilisation hiding under sunspot-s. [I l l “Flush one of the thllewing statements is FALSE? [a] A random star seleeted [rem the main seriuenee is more likely to he a red dwarf than any other kind of star. [h] If we t.‘al)t:it:‘.l‘t"€ two stars of spectral type K, it is possihle for one to he a supergiant and one to he a dwarf. te} A star elnster whose main seqnenee contains stars only of spectral type ELFILKJ-tldl is likely to he younger than a star cluster whose Iitain sequence contains stars only of spt-sett'al type ELK-ELLI LE — l is? I. L') — IEJE {til A. star that is lttfltltl times as luminous as the Sun L‘tLll still [all on the main sequenee. ® The main sequenee traces the typirral life eyele of an individual star the star moves trout upper-left to lower—right on a temperature—tuminosity tliagran‘t. {1'2l Most Earth—orhiting satellites rely en solar power :‘t'illeetetl hy selar panels attaeherl to the satellites. It tine of these satellites were sent to Saturn {ahout it} $.15. from the Sun}. how I'llT.lt.‘-l| larger or smaller would the selar panels have to he made to supply the same amount. of power to the satellite? Ir 1 {a} Itltl times smaller. lo : L L j 5’ T1“ 3% [Tun-4’“ : J" lhl 1“ times smaller. Limit 51 hp 11‘ 80‘“ 'e 1t] times larger. £3 L1“ Ul- flm a“ m 2 i d" If“ la} ltltl times larger. 5" ;- ?11 {el The same size. heeause the easement of energy eolleeterl by a solar panel is indepemlent tit distanee from the Sun. [13} lr‘v’hich one of the following statements about star and planet h'n‘mation is FALSE? ta} s—‘L pre—main—sequenee star radiates energy supplied by gravitational contraction. {hi it prermainvseqnenee star hertru'iuss a true star when nuclear fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium matte-i lie-gins. {cl Dining their gravitational collapse. giant clouds of gas and dust fragment into smaller collapsing units. generally giving rise to star clusters. @ The planets that tend to form around young stars some from clouds of gas. known as "p anetary nebulae?“ surrounding these stars. CS- ‘iT't l""'"“l'““‘f "it'th : “Jitl‘rl 3*“er Ul— “i'i ‘3‘”— [el Hydrostatic eqlfililu'inru is achieved in a star when the inward force of gravity is balanced by the outward pressure of the hot gases. l1-li®or F. Brown dwarfs are not complete failures as stars: they fuse deuterium. a heavy form of hydrogen. for a short tilt'n':. if"; ' || 22 [15} 'Whieh one of the lollowin g statements about parallax is TRUE? [a] rl'he distance of a star is given by the simple formula. ti = 1 fp. where o'. is measured in liirht— ears and :Iis the J‘tl‘ali'LTIC an le measured in devrees ‘l (“15““56‘3 """l lim'” on Y " t I l l ‘ ‘ ‘ g1” " ‘ c3 ' ' [Juneau {m 'r i-ryd-‘vvsull hl The distance to the Sun was first determined uslnv' the measured arallsx of the Sun. as P [r] it you want to Illeasure the pin-allax of a nearby star aee1.u'tttl.ely. you sllloulrl perlLI'thn all of your Ineasurt-unents on the same calendar day of the year. ‘3 t”- - H ‘3': {‘ 1’“‘r‘i“"m '-'n'”-'r+ - L 5 ‘15? An ohserver on Mercury would measure a smaller parallax! relative to ._an ohserver on EEK-1'1]1 fru- tjlr. SHIN-1r: Shun alt-mire." Hamel-He = Ian-lane:- l.‘It-l.-t-.lI;x_-.L {fill-:- trig-ml to} Tins parallax of a star nail-rs to the amount hv which the wavelengths of its spectral lines 1 . . . p a his. change as It is gravitatmnally tugged try an orlntlng planet. .- 4-—..__ I' _-' W‘I—Lflx — _--:- _""--_ I .1 31.1... 7 ——- [Hi] A star leaves the mam sequence when l\ luff" '5 - la} nuclear burning has converted the core to carbon and oxygen. Magma“ _m_.j.' " ’ ' .‘ .. .. .' .' .. "1-1" {Ii} helium heglns to undelgo nueleal Innmng 1n the core. “311—bp; {c} the hehum 1n the core 1s used up. {d} hydrogen hog-ins to undergo nuclear lulrning in the core. (:3) the hydrogen in the core is used up. {'lT] 'T' or® Degenerate matter. like that in a white dwarf or a neutron star. is not electrically neutral. and the strtilng' electric repulsion of the _partieles prevetpts gravitational et'illapse. Elt'LIth'.I"I'.:1-r'¢‘-{y IJFPL'u—“TJ “a urn—uti-L'fl'l Wu“- "1111 E-"-Ll 1‘r-1-l -I.-.'|' .fi'ni'sfi. L'1 aim"; '-. [13} W'ilittll tale oi the following statements about tile Sun is Flt LEE? {a} The magnetic field of Earth protects us lirom the full force of the solar wind. a stream of electrons and positive ions coming {rein the Sun. @ By watching long-lived snuspots. we can Illeasnre the %nn’s rotation period to he about 11 Ir'ears. rv‘l'l'rl'uer-x Pfiercdais ““ l int-.il'h. 'Csal'll" ‘E; if ‘ii'L‘l'i '3 “ll V‘Q-‘1"-‘ir tel Elunspots are cooler than surrounding regions of the photosphere because the strong magnetic fields associated with snnspots inhihit the rise of hotter gas item the Sun's interior. {d} ll you were to take a. sunspot. and place it in a dark area of sky, it would look lJrigiit relative to the hack ground sky. {e} Coronal mass ejections. solar flares. and prominenees tend to he shore uuuuns'mus and energetic near times of sunspot maximum than sunspot minimum. [151} T o@ The Schwarsschild radius of a black hole is preptu'tionai to the square of the hlaek hole's mass; thus the Sehwarsschild radius of a EDD—solar—mass black hole is lttll times larger than that of a Efl-solar—u‘iass black hole. H 1 [23 = 2% at of not H l [EU] Which one of the following features is NOT eomnnnily seen in the extra—solar planet systems astronomers have detested so far? [a} rery large planets. more massive than Jupiter. LEI—HG [h} Planets extren‘n'fly close to the stars they orhit. closer than Mercury is to the Sun. 7| Ln _ I. A [r'l Planets with very eccentric orbits. more eccentric than that. of Pluto. _I J '4 [rt] Mn]ti-1.:lanet systems. with several planets orhiting the same star. L3... [4 5 @ Small planets. with masses similar to that of the Earth. [Ell “Illicit one of the following statemeu ts ahont Type ii supernovae [assmtiatect with the deaths ot- massive stars) is FALSE? [a] Most oceur in. or near. regirms of star hu'nuttion. Ci) The amount of time hetween the formation of a star and its explosion in a Type II supernova eau he as long as It] billion years. 'Ps mason-ad .t'l't'U'fi. are. Vflrft Ll’t-r t'I'I'rad. tel The-J" can produce elements heavier than iron. TUE“: “hum” VET-'3‘ {d} Supernova 1987A was an :::xample of a Type [I supernova. {e} Most of their energy is emitted in the form of ghostly particles eatled neutrinos. [22l®1r F. In nuclear fusion. the mass of the final product is less than the mass of the initial I‘eaetants: the mass difference [ml is converted to energy aeeording to Einstein's famous equation. E = meg. [23} How do astronomers know that the so—catled "stellar—mass black holes." with masses typically about ll] times that of the Sun. are protrahly black holes rather than neutron stars? [ a} These olinjects are optically quite dark. hut neutron stars are extremely bright at optieal we veiengt hs. [t}} Spectra of these objects shonr that there are no neutrons in them. [c} Powerful Hawking radiation is detected by gamma ray telescopes pointed at these objects. [d} Those objects are observed to he sucking in matter at a tremendous rate from the parts of the Galaxy nearest to them. (3:) Neutron degeneracy pressure eannot support a "Ht—solar—Iu ass ohject. Lg—QCD ' * - r 1 t. - : "51 t- ire of: " -‘_-.l' T alt-1 var-t." [34] t-‘v l'_I_1Cl.L one of the toilotvlng statements 1s FALhE? I_ ma Pit and]: mlrrggfli a; (a) a meteor$s tall always pomts away from the Sun. L ‘ L_.:-..E_t- |-.:-..J alt-nu].- 5 {h} Amino acids. the precursors to life. have heen found in some meteorites. p.-.I'l'-'- HIV-1w "1- -=1 to” [c] “Shooting stars" are 111et.e:'n'oids that hurn due to triction as they pass through Earth's atuuimsphere. [d} A given 111eteo1' shove-1' occurs at about the same time each year. [e} Seine meteorites found on Earth eame from the Moon. [2:3] Which one of the following could NOT he a white dwarf right now. or at the specifier] time? {a} a star that has a luminosity of about 1 flfltltl that of the Sun and a ttJIHlJtil'IcIl-LII'F. ol' ltlflflfl K. [bl The Sun in about It! billion years. a ,1 _ J. } .II “4'. '4. Hr @ 1h. star having a mass of 3 solar tuasses, LE [33 '"h'm’W'h'L 1w H ' M5 t } a star havingr a mass of 't solar mass and a radius eomparahte to that of the Earth. [e} A star in a hinary system that heeomes a nova. suddenly brightening by a large amount. \- Hole.- ."|-"_:-;':‘: :1: JilLFl-tl‘t'll't' [inn End of Examination wt [was -'-r1 seer “can . U! ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2008 for the course ASTRO 10 taught by Professor Norm during the Fall '06 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Astronomy 10 - Fall 2006 - Filippenko - Midterm 2 - NU l...

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