371 Exam 1 Study Guide.docx - Module 1 Chapter 16 Fluid and Electrolyte\/Acid Base Imbalance(12 1 Fluid volume imbalance(1 p 276 a Look at flashcards 2

371 Exam 1 Study Guide.docx - Module 1 Chapter 16 Fluid and...

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Module 1 Chapter 16 Fluid and Electrolyte/Acid Base Imbalance (12) 1. Fluid volume imbalance (1) p. 276 a. Look at flashcards 2. Electrolyte imbalances: Ca, K, Mg, Na (4) a. Look at flashcards 3. ABG interpretation (3) a. Look at notes 4. Laboratory diagnostic findings (1) p. 277 a. Look at flashcards 5. Demographic considerations (1) a. ? 6. IV fluid replacement therapy (1) p. 292 a. Look at flashcards 7. Central venous access devices (1) p. 294 a. Catheters placed in large blood vessels for frequent or rapid administration of fluids and medications i. Centrally inserted catheters – into SVC and right atrium and/or subcutaneous tissue and synthetic cuf ii. Peripherally inserted central catheters [PICC] – into arm and then into heart iii. Implanted infusion ports – surgically implanted central venous catheter connected to a reservoir or port b. Used for : medications, nutrition, blood samples, blood transfusion, renal failure, heart failure, shock + burns c. Complications : i. Embolism – catheter breaking, dislodged, or has air 1. s/s: chest pain, dyspnea/tachypnea, hypoxia /cyanosis, hypotension , tachycardia 2. intervention: administer O2, clamp catheter , place pt on left side , notify doc. ii. Pneumothorax – perforation of air in the lungs during insertion 1. s/s: decreased / absent breath sounds , cyanosis, dyspnea, tachypnea, chest pain, distended unliteral chest 2. intervention: administer O2, position in semi-fowler , prepare chest tube insertion Module 2 Chapter 13 Cancer and Altered Immune (13) Altered immune responses and transplantation
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1. Autoimmune diseases (1) p. 204 a. Plasmapheresis i. Removal of plasma and antibody antigen comppexes to treat autoimmune diseases such as SLE, glomerulonephritis, Goodpasture syndrome, myasthenia gravis, thrombocytopenic purpura, rheumatoid arthritis, and Guillain barre syndrome ii. Plasma is replaced with normal saline, lactated ringer’s, fresh frozen plasma, plasma protein, or albumin iii. Complications : hypotension and citrate toxicity; citrate can cause hypocalcemia with s/s of headache, paresthesia, and dizziness 2. Immunity and aging (1) p. 196 a. Thymic involution [shrinking] b. Decreased delayed hypersensitivity reaction c. Decrease response of t and b cells d. Increase autoantibodies 3. Systemic anaphylactic reaction (2) p. 198-202 a. First s/s include edema and itching at site then leads to shock with s/s of rapid weak pulse, low bp, dilated pupils, dyspnea, cyanosis b. Drugs are the main cause of anaphylactic deaths c. Interventions : ensure airway, epinephrine, administer O2; give nebulized alburtero; if resistant to epinephrine, diphenhydramine [benadryl] for urticaria [hives] and itching, and corticosteroids; monitor vitals, reparations, O2 sat, LOC, cardiac rhythm, and urine output; expect cricothyrotomy or tracheostomy if there’s laryngeal edema 4. Hypersensitivity reactions (2) p. 197 a. Look at photo 5. Organ transplantation (2) p. 207 a. Rejection can be prevented by using immunosuppression therapy, do ABO and HLA matching, and ensuring crossmatch is negative b. Acute rejection is likely to happen once after transplant but can be treated with more
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