HUMA Summary(midterm).docx - HUMA Summary Chapter 1 The...

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HUMA Summary Chapter 1) The communal societies of prehistoric times 1.1) The Paleolithic Age(old stone age) History of mankind begins from Paleolithic(old stone) age Since a concerted group effort would have been required for hunting, it is likely that some form of communal life developed among Paleolithic man 1.2) The Appearance of Neolithic Man(new stone age) The Neolithic Age in Korea is divided into three periods The Middle Neolithic period : Comb-pattern pottery(V-shape) Decorated by designs by parallel lines on the outer surface that resemble marking made by a comb The Late Neolithic period : Flat-bottomed vessels At first having relied for their food on hunting, fishing, and gathering, these Neolithic people subsequently began to practice agriculture Neolithic man lived mainly in pit dwellings + natural or man-made caves 1.3) Society and Culture in the Neolithic Period There is no direct evidence suggesting what form society took in the Neolithic period The basic unit of society was the clan These social groupings, each bound together by its distinct blood line, are thought to have been totemistic The close identification with a particular totem, an object in the natural world, would not only serve to strengthen lineage solidarity but also would sharply differentiate one lineage from another These clan entities formed distinct communities and decided important matters at clan assemblages It is supposed that the later Hwabaek institution of Silla represents a continuation of this ancient tradition The clan was headed by a Chieftain, but he was chosen by his clansmen and, if he was thought to have erred, he always was subject to removal from his position The conduct of religious ceremonies on a communal basis is suggested by later customs involving shamanistic ceremonies and ancestor worship rituals
The clan community was an economically independent and self-sufficient entity Economic activities were NOT permitted within the territories claimed by other clans Nevertheless, some economic exchanges among different clan communities did take place It will be evidence that the consanguineous clan communities as postulated above possessed a markedly closed character Nevertheless, exogamous marriage was practiced, with partners invariably sought not within the community but from other clans However, the clan was NOT the only form that social organization took in the Neolithic period Larger social configurations, or tribes, came into being with the merging either of related clan units that had split off from one another as population increased, or of clans linked by marriage ties These tribes tended to find their unity in territorial as well as blood ties, but the principles governing the structure of their societies were substantially the same as those of the clan That is, matters of concern to the tribe as a whole were decided at assemblies of the clan chieftains and the leader of the tribe was chosen by these same clan representatives

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