MODERN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING; GCE 131 TERM PAPER.docx -...

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Introduction Guidance and Counselling began to emerge as an identifiable aspect of the Nigerian educational enterprise in the mid ‘50s. It is a discipline whose history emanated from the experience of happenings in the United States of America and it is these happenings that influence the establishment of the Guidance and Counselling as a discipline in Nigeria. While the date of the formal start of modern guidance in USA is taken as 1908 via the vocational guidance work of Frank Parsons (Father of American Guidance Movement), 1958 can be regarded as the date of the commencement of modern guidance in Nigeria. That year, the Catholic Reverend Sisters in St. Theresa’s College, Ibadan, recognized the need to give adequate career or vocational guidance to their final year students. Therefore in 1958, the reverend sisters, assisted by Mrs. Oruwariye, invited interested and enlightened members of the society to the school. Specialists in different areas of endeavour who had made their marks were invited to give career talks on their professions to their final year students.
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1. WHAT IS GUIDANCE The word guidance is explained in different ways by various/many writers, but all, having the same meaning. Shartzer and Stone (1976) defined guidance to mean “to direct, pilot or guide. Bakare (1996) refers to guidance as a more directive or prescriptive form of assistance. Idowu (1998) sees it as a family name for all the helping service within the general educational and community systems. 2. WHAT IS COUNSELLING Counselling is a process of helping individuals or group of people to gain self-understanding in order to be themselves. Burker and Steffler (1979) see counseling as a professional relationship between a trained Counselor and a client. Olayinka (1972) defined it to be a process whereby a person is helped in a face-to-face relationship while Makinde (1983) explained counseling as an enlightened process whereby people help others by encouraging their growth. 3. MODERN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING: is therefore the modern/contemporary form or process of helping individuals discover and develop their educational, vocational, social/personal and psychological potentialities and thereby to achieve an optimal level of personal happiness and social usefulness.
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For proper understanding of modern guidance and counselling, the bellow point will be explained in details. 1. Types of Modern Guidance and Counselling 2. Classification of Modern Guidance and Counselling 3. Approaches to Modern Guidance and Counselling 4. Methods of Modern Guidance and Counselling 5. Purposes of Guidance and Counselling 1. TYPES OF MODERN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING There are two major types of Counselling, namely: individual counselling and group counselling.
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