Question 1 The international events that have contributed to the development of environmental education and education for sustainability is as follows: Environmental education in the 20th century 1. In 1946 UNESCO (United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisations) was establish as a part of the broader United Nations Enterprise. - Only concerned with education in a developmental context, but through contact with bodies (IUCN) it became part of the process of developing environmental education. 2. IUCN Conference in Paris 1948 - The International Union for the conservation of Nature and Natural resources Conference was held at Fontainebleau from September 30 to October 7, 1948. - The established the Inter-national Union for the Protection of Nature. - The term “Environmental Education” was first used. 3. Founding of IUCN in 1949 - This organization is an ideological actor, they take conservation action, producing and circulating a definition of what constitutes conservation. 4. The term “Environmental Education” was first used in the U.K Conference held at Keele University in 1965. 5. The Paris Biosphere Conference of 1968 - Conference was held in Paris, France, September 4-13, 1968. - UNESCO planned the first conference between States which had the same aim to have a good balance between environment and development, creating sustainable development. 6. International Working Meeting on Environmental Education and the School Curricula (1970)
- This event was held June 20 to July 11 in 1970 at the Foresta Institute, Carson City, Nevada in the USA. - IUCN / UNESCO event was attended from people from the South, - This meeting formulate and adopt the definition of Environmental Education (EE) and they also worked out a plan on the integration of environmental education into the whole school curricula at different levels. “Environmental education is the process of recognizing values and clarifying concepts in order to develop skills and attitudes necessary to understand and appreciate the interrelatedness among man, his culture and his biophysical surroundings. Environmental education also entails practice in decision-making and self -formulation of a code of behaviour about issues concerning environmental quality.” (IUDN, 1970). (Palmer-1998;) 7. The United Nations Conference (1972). - It was an intergovernmental conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 5 to 16 June 1972. (Stockholm Conference). - The conference produced the declaration on the Human Environment. - Rich and poor nations came together to discuss matters of environmental concerns. - This conference made the recommendation on Environmental Education (EE) worldwide and decisions were made to create the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). 8. The International Workshop on Environmental Education in 1975 (Belgrade Charter).
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- Fall '19