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Unformatted text preview: UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARY Digitized by the Internet Arcliive University of Florida, George A. in 2010 with funding from Smathers Libraries with support from Lyrasis and the Sloan Foundation THE HARVARD CLASSICS EDITED BY CHARLES W ELIOT LL D THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE BY CHARLES DARWIN WITH INTRODUCTION, NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS DR ELIOT'S FIVE-FOOT SHELF OF BOOKS" P F COLLIER & SON NEW YORK Copyright, 1909 By P. F. Collier & Son —— A CONTENTS CHAPTER I PAGE — — — — — Porta Praya Ribeira Grande Atmospheric Dust with Infusoria Habits of a Sea-slug and Cuttle-fish St. Paul's Rocks, nonSingular Incrustations— Insects the first Colonists of volcanic Islands Fernando Noronha Bahia Burnished Rocks Habits of a Diodon Pelagic Confervas and Infusoria Causes of discoloured Sea — — — CHAPTER — — — II — Rio de Janeiro Excursion north of Cape Frio Great Evaporation Slavery Botofogo Bay Terrestrial Planarias Clouds on the Corcovado Heavy Rain Musical Frogs Phosphorescent Insects Elater, springing powers of Blue Haze Noise made by a Butterfly Entomology Ants Wasp killing a Spider Parasitical Spider Artifices of an Epeira Gregarious Spider Spider with an unsymmetrical Web — — —— II — — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER 29 III —Maldonado —Excursion R. Polanco—Lazo and Bolas —Partridges — Absence Trees — Deer — Capybara, or River Hog —Tucutuco ——Molothrus,of cuckoo-like habits — Tyrant-flycatcher Mocking-bird Carrion Hawks — Tubes formed by Lightning Monte Video to House struck 49 CHAPTER IV — Estancias goes — R. Negro Rio Negro — General — — — Rosas Proceed to Bahia Blanca Sand Negro Lieutenant Bahia Blanca Saline Incrustations Indian Families — — —— — attacked by the Indians Salt Lakes Flaminto R. Colorado Sacred Tree Patagonian Hare Dunes Punta Alta —Zorillo — CHAPTER V — — — Bahia Blanca Geology Numerous gigantic extinct Quadrupeds Recent Extinction Longevity of Species Large Animals do not require a luxuriant vegetation Southern Africa Siberian Fossils —Two Species of Ostrich Habits of Oven-bird Armadilloes Venomous Snake, Toad, Lizard Hybernation of Animals Habits of Sea-Pen Indian Wars and Massacres ^Arrow-head, antiquarian — — —— — — Relic — — — 93 VOL. XXIX— i9ob£0 HC — CONTENTS 2 CHAPTER — VI — —— — — PAGE Set out for Buenos Ayres Rio Sauce Sierra Ventana Third Posta Driving Horses Bolas Partridges and Foxes Features of the Country Long-legged Plover Terutero Hail-storm Natural Enclosures in the Sierra Tapalguen Flesh of Puma Meat Diet Guardia del Monte Effects of Cattle on the Vegetation Cardoon ^Buenos Ayres Corral where Cattle are slaughtered — — — — — — — — — — ... ii8 —Thistle-Beds—Habits of the Bizcacha—ChangeOwl Saline Streams— Level Plains— Mastodon — — Fe — Landscape^Geology —Tooth of extinct Horse — Relation of the Fossil and Recent Quadrupeds of North and South AmericaEffects of sreat Drought — Parana —Habits of the Jaguar — sor-beak— Kingfisher, Parrot, and — Revoltution — Buenos Ayres — State of Government 13S — CHAPTER Excursien to St, VII Fe Little in St. Scis- a' Scissor-tail CHAPTER — VIII — — Excursion to Colonia del Sacramiento Value of an Estancia Cattle, how counted Singular Breed of Oxen Perforated Pebbles Shepherd Dogs Horses broken-in, Gauchos riding Character of InFlocks of Butterflies Aeronaut Spiders habitants Rio Plata Phosphorescence of the Sea Port Desire Guanaco Port St. Julian Geology of Patagonia Fossil gigantic Animal; Types of Organization constant Change in the Zoology of America Causes — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — of Extinction i5S CHAPTER IX —Expedition up the River—Indians—Immense Streams of Basaltic Lava — Fragments not transported by the River — Excavation of the Valley — Condor, habits of — Cordillera — Erratic the Ship — Falk— ReturnWolf-like Boulders of great —Indian RelicsRabbits— Fox— Fire land Islands—Wild Horses, made of Bones— Manner of hunting Wild Cattle— Geology Streams of Stones — Scenes of Violence— Penguin — Geese — Eggs of Doris— Compound Animals Santa Cruz to size Cattle, 191 CHAPTER X — — — Tierra del Fuego, first arrival Good Success Bay An Account of Scenery the Fuegians on board Interview with the Savages Wigwam Cove Miserable Condiof the Forests Cape Horn Famines Cannibals Matricide Religious tion of the Savages Feelings Great Gale Beagle Channel Ponsonby Sound Build Wigwams and settle the Fuegians Bifurcation of the Beagle Channel Glaciers Return to the Shii) Second Visit in the Ship . Equality of Condition amongst the Natives to the Settlement — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 219 CHAPTER XI — Ascent of Mount Tarn— Forests of Magellan—Port Famine Edible Fungus Zoology Great Sea-weed Leave Tierra del Fuego Climate Fruit-trees and Productions of the Southern Coasts Height of Snow-line on the Cordillera Descent of GlaIcebergs formed Transportal of Boulders ciers to the Sea Climate and Productions of the Antarctic Islands—Preservation Recapitulation of Frozen Carcasses Strait — — — — — — — — — — — 247 — —— — • CONTENTS CHAPTER 3 XII —Excursion the Foot of the Andes Structure of the Land —Ascend the Bell of Quillota — Shattered — Masses of Greenstone Immense Valleys — Mines — State of Miners — Santiago — Hot-baths of Cauquenes — Gold-mines — Grinding-mills — Perforated Stones Habits of the Puma— El Turco and Tapacolo— Humming-birds Valparaiso PAGE to . CHAPTER 269 XIII —General Aspect—Boat Excursion—Native Indians—Castro Tame Fox—Ascend San Pedro— Chonos Archipelago — Peninsula Tres Montes — Granitic Range— Boat-wrecked —Low's Harbour — Wild Potato — Formation Peat — Myopotamus, Otter Chiloe of Sailors and Mice — Cheucau of and Barking-bird—^Opetiorhynchus Character of Ornithology —Petrels — Singular 290 CHAPTER XIV San Carlos, —Osomo Eruptiom, contemporaneously with and Coseguina — Ride Cucao — Impenetrable Forests Chiloe Aconcagua in to — Valdiviafissured — — Earthquake— Concepcion — Great Earthquake — Appearance of the former Towns —The Sea — Rocks Black and Boiling— Direction of the Vibrations— Stones twisted round — Great Wave— Permanent Elevation of the Land — Area of Volcanic Phenomena —The connection between the Elevatory and Eruptive Forces—Causes of earthquakes — Slow Elevation of Mountain-chains Indians 309 CHAPTER XV —Portillo Pass — Sagacity of Mules—Mountain-torrents how discovered — Proofs of the gradual Elevation of the Cordillera — Effect of Snow on Rocks— Geological Structure of the two main Ranges— Their distinct Origin and Upheaval — Great subsidence— Red Snow — Winds —Pinnacles of Snow — Dry and clear Atmosphere— Electricity — Pampas —Zoology of the opposite Sides of the Andes— Locusts — Great Bugs — Mendoza — Uspallata Pass — trees buried as they grew— Incas Bridge— Badness of tke Passes exaggerated— Cumbre — Casuchas— Valparaiso Valparaiso Mines, Silicified . . 332 CHAPTER XVI — Great Loads carried by the Miners Coquimbo— Earthquake — Step-formed Terraces — Absence of recent Deposits — Contemporaneousness of the Tertiary Formations — Excursion up the Valley — Road to Guasco— Deserts — Valley of Copiapo — Rain and Earthquakes — Hydrophobia —The Despoblado Indian Ruins — Probable change of Climate — River-bed arched by an Earthquake — Cold Gales of Wind— Noises from a Hill — Iquique— Salt Alluvium — Nitrate of Soda — Lima — Unhealthy Country— Ruins of Callao, overthrown by an Earthquake — Recent subsidence— Elevated Shells on San Lorenzo, their decomposition Plain with embedded Shells and fragments of Pottery —Antiquity of the Indian Coast-road to Coquimbo _ Race 357 — CONTENTS 4 CHAPTER XVII — —— — — PAGE Galapagos Archipelago The whole Group Volcanic Number of Craters Colony at Charles Island James Island SaltLeafless Bushes Ornithology, curilake in Crater Natural History of the Group ous Finches Reptiles Great Tortoises, habits of Marine Lizard, feeds on Sea-weed Terrestrial Lizard, burrowing habits, herbivorous Importance of Reptiles in the Archipelago Fish, Shells, Insects Botany American Type of Organization Differences in the Species or Races on different Islands Tameness of the Birds Fear of Man, an acquired Instinct — — — — — — — — CHAPTER Pass — — — — — — 394 XVIII —Tahiti —Aspect —Vegetation on the Mountains — View of Eimeo — Excursion into the Interior Profound Ravines — Succession of Waterfalls — Number of wild useful Plants —Temperance of the Inhabitants —Their moral state Parliament convened — New Zealand — Bay of Islands —Hippahs — Excursion Waimate — Missionary Establishment — English Weeds now run wild— Waiomio — Funeral of a New Zealand Woman through Low the Archipelago to Sail for Australia 425 CHAPTER XIX — Excursion to Bathurst—Aspect of the Woods—Party of Natives — Gradual extinction of the Aborigines — Infection generated by associated Men in health — Blue Mountains — View of the grand gulf-like Valleys —Their origin and formation— Bathurst, of the Lower Orders — State of Society — Van general banished — Mount Diemen's Land — Hobart Town — Aborigines Wellington — King George's Sound — Cheerless Aspect of the Country — Bald Head, calcareous casts of branches of Trees — Party of Natives — Leave Australia Sydney civility all 4SS CHAPTER XX — — — Transport of Scanty Flora Singular appearance Keeling Island Seeds Birds and Insects Ebbing and flowing Springs Fields Stone transported in the roots of Trees Great of dead Coral Crab Stinging Corals Coral-eating Fish Coral Formations Lagoon Islands, or Atolls Depth at which reef-building Corals can live Vast Areas interspersed with low Coral Islands Subsidence of their foundations Barrier Reefs Fringing Reefs Conversion of Fringing Reefs into Barrier Reefs, and into Atolls Evidence of changes in Level Breaches in Barrier Reefs — — — — — —— — — — — — — — — — — Maldiva Atolls; their peculiar structure Dead and submerged Reefs Areas of subsidence and elevation Distribution of Volcanoes Subsidence slow, and vast in amount — — 477 CHAPTER XXI — Mauritius, beautiful appearance of Great crateriform ring of Mountains—Hindoos St. Helena History of the changes in the VegeCause of the extinction of Land-shells Ascension Variatation Volcanic Bombs Beds of Infusoria tion in the imported Rats Bahia Brazil Splendour of Tropical Scenery Pernambuco Singular Reef— Slavery Return to England Retrospect on our — Voyage Index — — — — — — — — — — — — 509 535 INTRODUCTORY NOTE A SKETCH of Darwin's life and some indicatioii of the importance of his work have been given in the edition of "Tli£ Origin of Species" published in the Harvard Classics. The text of the present volume shows without further comment the nature of Darwin's labors and their results on this momentous voyage. A few sentences gathered from his autobiography will, however, throw some additional light upon the more personal aspects of the expedition. "The Voyage of the 'Beagle' has been by far the most im-\ and has determined my whole career. owe to the voyage the first real training or education of my mind; I was led to attend closely to several branches of natural history, and thus my powers of observation were improved, though they were always fairly portant event in ... my ^ life, / have always felt that I developed. . . ." ^. "The above various special studies were, however, of no im- \ portance compared with the habit of energetic industry and of concentrated attention to whatever I was engaged in, which I then acquired. Everything about which I thought or read was made to bear directly on what I had seen or was likely to see; and this habit of mind was continued during the five years of the voyage. I feel sure that it was this training which has en-j me to do whatever I have done in science." "Looking backwards, I can now perceive how abled my love for science gradually preponderated over every other taste. During the first two years full force, and I my old passion for shooting survived in nearly shot, myself, all the birds and animals for my and more, and my gun more collection; but gradually I gave up my servant, as shooting interfered with my work, more especially with making out the geological structure of a country. I discovered, though unconsciously and insensibly, finally altogether, to and reasoning was a much higher ." one than that of skill and sport. "As far as I can judge of myself, I worked to the utmost during the voyage from the mere pleasure of investigation, and from that the pleasure of observing . my in . strong desire to add a few facts to the great mass of facts Natural Science. But I was also ambitious to take a fair 5 j INTRODUCTION 6 place among than most of my and Letters, L Even men,— whether more ambitious or less so fellow-workers, I can form no opinion." (Life scientific — pp. 61-65. Journal of the voyage were not one of the most this statement by its author of the importance of the expedition in making possible his later epoch-making generalisations would give it a distinctive place in if the interesting and informing of hooks, But its am^azing wealth of informaunconsciously painted picture of disinterested zeal the literature of science. tion and its in the search for scientific truth have made sons a classic in its kind. it for intrinsic rea- TO CHARLES LYELL, HIS SECOND EDITION IS Esq., F.R.S. DEDICATED WITH GRATEFUL PLEASURE, AS AN ACKNOWLEDGMENT THAT THE CHIEF PART OF WHATEVER SCIENTIFIC MERIT THIS JOURNAL AND THE OTHER WORKS OF THE AUTHOR MAY POSSESS, HAS BEEN DERIVED FROM STUDYING THE WELL-KNOWN AND ADMIRABLE PRINCIPLES OF GEOLOGY PREFACE I HAVE Stated in the preface to the first Edition of this work, Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle, that it was in consequence of a wish expressed by Captain Fitz Roy, of having some scientific person on board, accompanied by an offer from him of giving up part of his own accommodations, that I volunteered my services, which received, through the kindness of the hydrographer, Captain Beaufort, the sanction of the Lords of the Admiralty. As I feel that the opportunities which I enjoyed of studying the Natural History of the different countries we visited, have been wholly due to Captain Fitz Roy, I hope I may here be permitted to repeat my expression of gratitude to him; and to add that, during the five years we were together, I re- and in the ceived from ance. Both him the most cordial friendship to Captain Fitz Roy and and steady assist- to all the Officers of the Beagle^ I shall ever feel most thankful for the undeviating kindness with which I was treated during our long voyage. This volume contains, in the form of a Journal, a history of our voyage, and a sketch of those observations in Natural History and Geolog>% which I think will possess some interest for the general reader. I have in this edition largely condensed and corrected some parts, and have added a little to others, in order to render the volume more fitted for popular reading but I trust that naturalists will remember, that they must refer for details to the larger publications which comprise the scientific results of the Expedition. The Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle includes an account of the Fossil Mammalia, by Professor Owen; of the Living Mammalia, by Mr. Waterhouse of the Birds, by Mr. Gould; of the Fish, by the Rev. L. Jenyns; and of the Reptiles, by Mr. Bell. I have appended to the descriptions of each species an account of its habits and range. These works, which ; ; ^ I must take this opportunity of returning my sincere thanks to Mr. Bynoe,_ the surgeon of the Beagle, for his very kind attention to me when I was ill at Valparaiso. 9 PREFACE 10 I owe to the high talents and disinterested zeal of the above distinguished authors, could not have been undertaken, had it not been for the liberality of the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury, who, through the representation of the Right Honourable the Chancellor of the Exchequer, have been pleased to grant a sum of one thousand pounds towards defraying part of the expenses of publication. Structure I have myself published separate volumes on the and Distribution of Coral Reefs;' on the 'Volcanic Islands and on the Geology visited during the Voyage of the Beagle ' ; * ' The volume of the Geological Transcontains two papers of mine on the Erratic Boulders actions and Volcanic Phenomena of South America. Messrs. Waterhouse, Walker, Newman, and White, have published several able papers on the Insects which were collected, and I trust that many others will hereafter follow. The plants from the southern parts of America will be given by Dr. J. Hooker, in his great work on The Flora of the the Botany of the Southern Hemisphere. of South America/ sixth * ' Galapagos Archipelago is the subject of a separate memoir by Linnean Transactions.' The Reverend Professor In the Henslow has published a list of the plants collected by me at the Keeling Islands; and the Reverend J. M. Berkeley has described my cryptogamic plants. I shall have the pleasure of acknowledging the great assistance which I have received from several other naturalists, in the course of this and my other works; but I must be here allowed to return my most sincere thanks to the Reverend Professor Henslow, who, when I was an undergraduate at Cambridge, was one chief means of giving me a taste for Natural History, who, during my absence, took charge of the collections I sent home, and by his correspondence directed my endeavours, and who, since my return, has constantly rendered me every assistance which the kindest friend could offer. him. ' — — Down, Bromley, Kent, June, 184s. — THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE CHAPTER St. Jago— Cape de — — I Verd Islands Porto Praya Ribeira Grande Atmospheric Dust with Infusoria Habits of a Sea-slug and Cuttle-fish St. Paul's Rocks, non- volcanic Singular Incrustations Insects the first Colonists of Islands Fernando Noronha Bahia Burnished Rocks Habits of a Diodoa Pelagic Confervae and Infusoria Causes of discoloured Sea. — — — — — — — FTER — having been twice driven back by heavy southwestern gales, Her Majesty's ship Beagle, a ten-gun -i--^ brig, under tho command of Captain Fitz Roy, R. N., The sailed from Devonport on the 27th of December, 1831. object of the expedition was to complete the survey of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, commenced under Captain King to survey the shores of Chile, Peru, and in 1826 to 1830 of some islands in the Pacific and to carry a chain of chronometrical measurements round the World. On the 6th of January we reached Teneriffe, but were prevented landing, by fears of our bringing the cholera: the next morning we saw the sun rise behind the rugged outline of the Grand Canary island, and suddenly illuminate the Peak of Teneriffe, This whilst the lower parts were veiled in fleecy clouds. was the first of many delightful days never to be forgotten. On the i6th of January, 1832, we anchored at Porto Praya, in St. Jago, the chief island of the Cape de Verd archipelago. The neighbourhood of Porto Praya, viewed from the sea, wears a desolate aspect. The volcanic fires of a past age, and the scorching heat of a tropical sun, have in most places rendered the soil unfit for vegetation. The country rises in successive steps of table-land, interspersed with some truncate conical hills, and the horizon is bounded by an irregular chain of more lofty mountains. The scene, as beheld through i I\ — — 11 ; CHARLES DARWIN 12 the hazy atmosphere of this cHmate, is one of great interest if, indeed, a person, fresh from sea, and who has just walked, for the first time, in a grove of cocoa-nut trees, can be a judge of anything but his own happiness. The island would generally be considered as very uninteresting; but to anyone accustomed only to an English landscape, the novel aspect of an utterly sterile land possesses a grandeur which more vegetation might spoil. A single green leaf can scarcely be discovered over wide tracts of the lava plains; yet flocks of goats, together with a few cows, contrive to exist. It rains very seldom, but during a short portion of the year heavy torrents fall, and immediately afterwards a light vegetation...
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