You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 226 pages?
Unformatted text preview: The Modern Art of High Intensity
training This page intentionally left blank. F
stéphane gannea Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Broussal-Derval, Aurélien, author. | Ganneau, Stephane, author.
Title: The modern art of high intensity training / Aurélien Broussal-Derval, Stephane Ganneau.
Description: Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics,  | Includes
Identifiers: LCCN 2016050879 (print) | LCCN 2017000410 (ebook) | ISBN
9781492544999 (print) | ISBN 9781492545002 (ebook)
Subjects: LCSH: Exercise. | Exercise--Physiological aspects. | Physical
fitness. | Weight training.
Classification: LCC GV481 .B77 2017 (print) | LCC GV481 (ebook) | DDC
LC record available at
ISBN: 978-1-4925-4499-9 (print)
Copyright © 2017 by Aurélien Broussal-Derval and Stéphane Ganneau
All rights reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilization of this work in any form or by any
electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including xerography, photocopying,
and recording, and in any information storage and retrieval system, is forbidden without the written permission
of the publisher.
This publication is written and published to provide accurate and authoritative information relevant to the subject
matter presented. It is published and sold with the understanding that the author and publisher are not engaged
in rendering legal, medical, or other professional services by reason of their authorship or publication of this work.
If medical or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought.
This book is a revised edition of Méthode Cross Training, published in 2015 by 4trainer Editions.
The web addresses cited in this text were current as of December, 2016, unless otherwise noted.
Publication/editing: Nadia Belhadj; Managing Editor: Nicole Moore; Copyeditor: Bob Replinger; Permissions
Manager: Dalene Reeder; Graphic Designers: Nicolas Moreau ( ), Dawn Sills; Cover Designer: Nicolas Moreau ( ); Photographs: Stéphane Ouzounoff; Models: Céline Hardy and
Kevin Caesemaeker; Illustrations: Stéphane Ganneau; Printer: Versa Press
Human Kinetics books are available at special discounts for bulk purchase. Special editions or book excerpts can
also be created to specification. For details, contact the Special Sales Manager at Human Kinetics.
Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
The paper in this book is certified under a sustainable forestry program.
United States: Human Kinetics
P.O. Box 5076
Champaign, IL 61825-5076
e-mail: [email protected] Australia: Human Kinetics
57A Price Avenue
Lower Mitcham, South Australia 5062
08 8372 0999
e-mail: [email protected] Canada: Human Kinetics
475 Devonshire Road Unit 100
Windsor, ON N8Y 2L5
800-465-7301 (in Canada only)
e-mail: [email protected] New Zealand: Human Kinetics
P.O. Box 80
Mitcham Shopping Centre, South Australia 5062
0800 222 062
e-mail: [email protected] Europe: Human Kinetics
107 Bradford Road
Leeds LS28 6AT, United Kingdom
+44 (0) 113 255 5665
e-mail: [email protected] E6969 To all the amazing coaches who inspire me each day,
who gave me opportunities and then guided me:
Frankie Lesage, Jane Bridge, Patrick Roux, Ezio Gamba,
and Christian Derval, my father. ABD. S
001 Why You Need a Program to Be Successful 002 Training Fundamentals as a Starting Point 002 PRINCIPLE 1: PROGRESSION 003 PRINCIPLE 2: CONTINUITY 003 PRINCIPLE 3: VARIETY 003 PRINCIPLE 4: NONLINEARITY 003 PRINCIPLE 5: LOAD AND RECOVERY 004 What You Should Know About Physiology 004 THE ENERGY CONTINUUM 004 QUICK, ENERGY! 005 LACTATE IS AT THE HEART OF ENERGY PRODUCTION 006 WHAT ABOUT RECOVERY? 006 ADJUSTING THE INTENSITY 007 USING TIME UNDER TENSION TO ADJUST THE LOAD 008 Things That Interfere With Training 008 RULE 1: PRIORITIZE THE WORK 008 RULE 2: WORK OUT IN THE RIGHT ORDER 008 RULE 3: AVOID BAD COMBINATIONS 010 COMBINATIONS THAT WORK 011 How to Use This Book 012 The Warm-Up 012 BASIC WARM-UP REMINDERS 014 HOW TO PLAN A WARM-UP 014 Principles to Keep in Mind WHY YOU NEED A PROGRAM TO BE SUCCESSFUL 016 ESSENTIAL PARTS OF THE WARM-UP 016 (1) General Warm-Up 016 (2) Auxiliary Warm-Up 016 (3) Specific Warm-Up 016 SPECIFIC HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING ROUTINES 033 Technical Foundation 034 Foundational Exercises 034 CLEAN AND JERK 034 Clean 046 Workout - Cleans 047 Jerk 052 Workout - Jerks 053 Workout - Clean
and Jerks 054 Sandbag Clean 055 Workout Sandbags 056 Tire Clean 059 Workout Tire Cleans 060 Snatch 075 Workout - Snatches 076 Kettlebell Variations 077 Workout - Kettlebell Snatches 082 Workout - Kettlebell Cleans 083 Bent-Over Row 088 Workout - Bent-Over Rows 089 Basic Athletic Exercises 089 SQUAT 089 Different Types of Squats 091 Anatomy Reminders 092 How Far Should You Go Down in a Squat? 093 Squat Mythology 093 Range of Motion and Performance 095 Squat Technique 096 Workout - Squats 097 Front Squat 099 Workout - Front Squats VII 100 Overhead Squat 102 Workout - Overhead Squats 103 Thruster 107 Workout - Thrusters 108 One-Legged (Bulgarian Split) Squat 110 Workout - One-Legged Squats 111 Pistol Squat (Air Squat on One Leg) 113 Workout - Pistol Squats 114 Workout - Mixed Squats 115 Landmine Squat 117 Landmine Obliques 119 Workouts - Landmine Squats 120 BENCH PRESS 122 Workout - Bench Presses 123 Bench Press With Dumbbells or Kettlebells 124 Workout - Bench Presses With Dumbbells or Kettlebells 125 DEADLIFT 127 Workout - Deadlifts 128 Kettlebell Swing 133 Workout - Kettlebell Swings 134 Arabesque 135 Workout - Arabesques 136 Straight-Leg Deadlift 137 Workout - Straight-Leg Deadlifts 138 Sumo Deadlift 139 Workout - Sumo Deadlifts 140 Lunge 142 Workout - Lunges 143 Bodyweight Exercises 143 FOUNDATION FOR PULL-UPS 145 Workout - Pull-Ups 146 Archer Pull-Up 147 Workout - Archer Pull-Ups 148 Open-Hand (Clapping) Pull-Up 150 Workout - Clapping Pull-Ups 153 Workout - Pull-Ups 154 Rope Climbing 157 Workout - Ropes 158 PUSH-UP 161 Workout - Push-Ups WHY YOU NEED A PROGRAM TO BE SUCCESSFUL 162 Renegades 164 Workout - Renegades 165 Burpee 166 Workout - Burpees 167 Clapping Push-Up 168 Workout - Clapping Push-Ups 169 EXPLOSIVE PUSH-UP 169 Double Knee Tuck Push-Up 171 Aztec Push-Up 172 Superman Push-Up 173 Workout - Explosive Push-Ups 174 BATTLE ROPES 179 Workout - Battle Ropes 180 DIPS 181 Workout - Dips 182 CORE EXERCISES 182 V-Up 184 Workout - V-Ups 185 Toes to Bar 186 Workout - Toes to Bars 187 Turkish Get-Up 189 Workout - Turkish Get-Ups 190 Barbell Ab Rollout 191 Workout - Barbell Ab Rollouts 192 Running 192 Running Techniques
193 A Total-Body Approach to Running Mechanics
194 PARAMETERS OF RUNNING 195 MECHANICS OF STRIDE ADAPTATION 198 Workout - Running 199 The 15-Week Modern Art Program 200 PHASE 1—FUNDAMENTALS 202 PHASE 2—STRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT 204 PHASE 3—INTENSIFY 206 PHASE 4—OPTIMIZE 209 Biibliography IX Chapter 1 WHY YOU NEED
TO BE SUCCESSful
002 Training Fundamentals as a Starting Point 002 003 003 003 003 Principle 1: Progression
Principle 2: Continuity
Principle 3: Variety
Principle 4: Nonlinearity
Principle 5: Load and Recovery 004 What You Should Know About Physiology 004 004 005 006 006 007 The Energy Continuum
Lactate Is at the Heart of Energy Production
What About Recovery?
Adjusting the Intensity
Using Time Under Tension to Adjust the Load 008 Things That Interfere With Training 008 008 008 010 Rule 1: Prioritize the Work
Rule 2: Work Out in the Right Order
Rule 3: Avoid Bad Combinations
Combinations That Work 011 How to Use This Book 012 012 014 016 016 The Warm-Up
Basic Warm-Up Reminders
How to Plan a Warm-Up
Essential Parts of the Warm-Up
Specific High Intensity Training Routines 002 THE MODERN ART OF HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING The greatest asset of high intensity training is also its biggest weakness. The variety
inherent in many programs is what attracts most people and holds their interest. But
starting a new program that is different and innovative in many ways, using different
weights, and doing a new workout daily can lead to counterproductive methods of
improvisation. Changing things up, solely for the sake of change, could result in unintended consequences. Obviously, you can vary your training, but there is an art to doing
so. What follows within is The Modern Art of High Intensity Training. TRAINING FUNDAMENTALS
AS A STARTING POINT
As in any discipline, training is based on fundamental precepts that
should never be compromised for any reason, even to keep things new.
The training principles follow. µµ Principle 1: Progression This principle is based not only on physiology and pedagogy but
also on common sense. Some gyms and fitness clubs try to increase
membership by promoting challenging but complex routines. These
routines highlight a number of tools but ignore the basic concept of
progression. This philosophy comes from the idea that participants
are coming to the club to feel good and have fun, so the club should
give them their money’s worth as quickly as possible. First, this view
is contrary to the progression required in high intensity training. It
separates a person’s technical development from his or her physical
The fundamental techniques of common high intensity training
exercises are too complex to assume that anyone can master them
in an instant. Instead, participants must work for several months to
be able to perform exercises efficiently and without risk of injury;
success can be achieved only through serious work on the basics. Specific instruction, especially
for the snatch and clean and
jerk exercises, is important from
The complexity of high intensity training is not only technical but also physiological.
Workouts often require several
physical attributes (sometimes
these attributes are antagonistic; see the section later in the
book devoted to interference
in training). The most intense
attributes rely on the methodical and gradual development
of metabolic endurance, involving basic adaptations without
which the effectiveness of future
training could be compromised.
Of course, you can train every
part of your body, but that does
not mean you should do it in a
Metabolic endurance, characterized by varying levels of
intensity and sustained effort, WHY YOU NEED A PROGRAM TO BE SUCCESSFUL involves primary physiological adaptations that cannot be
developed in other ways (or can
only be developed to a lesser
degree). Relevant terms here
include plasma volume, stroke
volume, and the force of left
ventricle contraction. If these
aspects are not rigorously developed using a suitable program
at the beginning, they may limit
Progression should be evident
in any program even though
people are often tempted to
skip the warm-up. In most clubs,
instructors are taught the importance and principles of warming
up. But when you add the time
required for a gradual, thorough
warm-up to the time needed for
a complete workout, the standard 60-minute time frame is
sometimes not enough. So in
practice, the warm-up is often
Reactivating motor patterns gradually (indeed, training them),
becoming psychologically awake,
and optimizing physiologicalparameters will all guarantee a successful workout (see The WarmUp section starting on page 12
for more information). A warmup with a gradual increase in
weight and exercise complexity
creates optimal conditions for the
main workout. µµ Principle 2: Continuity Keep in mind that short-term progress is unstable. To make such
progress permanent, you need to continue using consistent loads
in a similar pattern over several workouts. In fact, randomly changing
programs from one workout to the next means that you will never
create lasting adaptations, greatly limiting your potential.
Some exercise classes or training programs rely on the “instant results”
fitness approach. But the risk of doing a little of everything is ultimately doing a lot of nothing. This book will show you how to create a
functional training program that will deliver real and lasting results.
µµ Principle 3: Variety Workout variety increases motivation by continually surprising an
athlete and avoiding a boring workout routine. This principle does
not necessarily have to conflict with the other principles. It can provide a perfect balance of rigor and variety.
µµ Principle 4: Nonlinearity Nonlinearity is another basic principle widely associated with high
intensity training, especially in the choice of exercises. A purposeful mixture of different types of exercises is arranged in a variety of
sequences and has the goal of creating a novel or unusual training
stress. Nonlinearity can also be applied to load and volume (sets,
times, reps). Instead of the traditional use of gradually progressive
blocks of training, nonlinear load and volume changes occur more
often (even weekly or daily) within shorter training phases to provide
more variation in the training stimulus.
µµ Principle 5: Load and Recovery A good reason to take back control of your workout program is to
create an optimal balance between load and recovery. Whether you
are in the middle of a workout or between two workouts, you should
never plan your workload without considering the recovery required.
First, recovery guarantees a return to a fresh state so that the body is
again able to perform intense training. Second, most of the progress
that results from a workout actually occurs during recovery.
You’ll find that our approach is rigorous when it comes to scheduling
and managing recovery. 003 004 THE MODERN ART OF HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING What You Should Know About Physiology
You probably already know that muscle is made up of different types of fibers. As a reminder, muscles include
slow-twitch and fast-twitch fibers. Slow-twitch fibers are especially vascular and rich in mitochondria. Their
maximum performance occurs during repetitive or prolonged contractions at below maximum intensity. In
contrast, fast-twitch fibers are the most effective during intense contractions and during short bursts of maximum effort. Fast-twitch fibers can be further divided into two subcategories: fibers that can be easily fatigued
and fibers that are somewhat harder to fatigue. The physiology of any effort is subject to these mechanisms
of contraction. Physical performance, from a motor standpoint, depends on combining these contractions
together. To do this, you need a system to convert fuel into energy. µµ The Energy Continuum Depending on the intensity and duration of a workout, the production of energy is accomplished with or without the availability of
oxygen. The breakdown of glucose (which is the primary fuel) during
exercise continues as the effort is prolonged (and so long as the intensity is kept low enough) by using more and more oxygen. People talk
about anaerobic (without oxygen) or aerobic (with oxygen) pathways,
but the mechanism is really a continuum in which the dominant
pathway depends on the type of physical effort. lerated breakdown of glucose
required to produce energy for
intense muscle contractions
results in the production of a
large amount of pyruvate. The
mitochondria cannot handle
too much pyruvate, leading to
the production of lactate. The human body is a hybrid motor propelled by several energy-producing systems that take control depending on the situation.
High intensity training is interesting in this context because it oscillates between the aerobic and anaerobic systems through varying
levels of intensity throughout the workout. You often hear people
discuss lactate in this situation.
µµ Quick, Energy! When exercise intensity increases and muscle contractions are repetitive and intense, the fast-twitch fibers produce a lot of lactate.
The stored form of glucose, called glycogen, is broken down into
pyruvate (which then helps the body produce energy). Pyruvate
enters the mitochondria, where, when combined with oxygen, it
is transformed into energy (the aerobic pathway). But as intensity
increases, the fast-twitch fibers are recruited and the production of
pyruvate becomes too much for the mitochondria to handle. Pyruvate builds up at the entrance to the mitochondria and is converted
into lactate. This is the anaerobic pathway.
This is what happens in high intensity training circuits. The intensity
is high enough that the two systems function together; the acce- Why lactate is
The efficiency with which the body
transforms glucose into energy
comes, in part, from the ability
of the body to liberate glucose
by transporting H+ protons. The
production of lactate allows the
proton transporters to release
their cargo and pick up more
quickly. So the creation of
lactate helps maintain a rapid
glucose breakdown flow.
This mechanism helps explain
why the more lactate you
produce, the more capable
you are of an intense effort. WHY YOU NEED A PROGRAM TO BE SUCCESSFUL µµ Lactate Is at the Heart of Energy Production As we have already explained, lactate is mostly produced by fasttwitch fibers whose mitochondrial saturation accelerates the production of pyruvate during intense exercise. This process is exactly
what happens during high intensity training, which generates a lot
of lactate. Extensive capacity and
In 2007 Aubert and Chauffin
identified an important concept
called repetitive capacity.
Before then, energy pathways were
understood to be like machines,
with both power (maximum
intensity produced during effort
in a given pathway) and capacity
(delay in the time to fatigue
of the system in use, which is
gradually abandoned in favor of
the power of the next system).
It is this second part that the
authors called extensive capacity.
They compare it to repetitive
capacity, which is the potential
for repetitive, high intensity
effort within the same system.
Here we are talking
about enduring power, a
specific requirement for
high intensity training. Lactate is then captured by the neighboring slow-twitch fibers to be
used for energy by the aerobic pathway. Any remaining lactate enters
the bloodstream and is used as energy by the heart or by other slowtwitch fibers that become available during active recovery.
For that reason, we use mostly active recovery periods during the
workouts. Single sets
Since about 2010, a stirring debate has been ongoing about single
sets versus multiple sets. Some researchers and coaches promoted
the seductive idea that a single set, pushed to failure (the moment
when you cannot do another repetition) would be only slightly less
effective than multiple sets and that the difference was not great
enough to justify doing multiple sets (generally, the single-set myth
states that the gain from doing multiple sets is only 3 percent greater).
These theories echoed throughout the high intensity
training community, where long, burning sets and
short workouts are especially popular.
Even though the majority of studies have since
disproved this theory, here are a few final arguments
to convince you that four is better than one.
- Who would turn down a 3 percent increase in performance?
- Muscle growth occurs in fatigued muscle fibers following
maximum muscle tension. The causes for muscle saturation
vary, and a single set can be stopped for other reasons than
complete local muscular saturation (e.g., central nervous system
fatigue, psychological fatigue, blood acidity, a decrease in
energy reserves, and, especially, a lack of technical expertise).
In other words, a set pushed to failure is effective, but these
sets should not be used exclusively. Single sets should be
combined with other methods for the best results.
As much as possible, maximum effort should be duplicated
from one set to the next, illustrating this book’s concept
of multiple single sets or of a repeated single set. 005 006 THE MO...
View Full Document
- Fall '19