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Unformatted text preview: The Modern Art of High Intensity training This page intentionally left blank. F O T R A N R E D O M THE HIGH INTENSITY training al-Derval Aurélien Brouss u stéphane gannea Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Broussal-Derval, Aurélien, author. | Ganneau, Stephane, author. Title: The modern art of high intensity training / Aurélien Broussal-Derval, Stephane Ganneau. Description: Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics, [2017] | Includes bibliographical references. Identifiers: LCCN 2016050879 (print) | LCCN 2017000410 (ebook) | ISBN 9781492544999 (print) | ISBN 9781492545002 (ebook) Subjects: LCSH: Exercise. | Exercise--Physiological aspects. | Physical fitness. | Weight training. Classification: LCC GV481 .B77 2017 (print) | LCC GV481 (ebook) | DDC 613.7/1--dc23 LC record available at ISBN: 978-1-4925-4499-9 (print) Copyright © 2017 by Aurélien Broussal-Derval and Stéphane Ganneau All rights reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilization of this work in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including xerography, photocopying, and recording, and in any information storage and retrieval system, is forbidden without the written permission of the publisher. This publication is written and published to provide accurate and authoritative information relevant to the subject matter presented. It is published and sold with the understanding that the author and publisher are not engaged in rendering legal, medical, or other professional services by reason of their authorship or publication of this work. If medical or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. This book is a revised edition of Méthode Cross Training, published in 2015 by 4trainer Editions. The web addresses cited in this text were current as of December, 2016, unless otherwise noted. Publication/editing: Nadia Belhadj; Managing Editor: Nicole Moore; Copyeditor: Bob Replinger; Permissions Manager: Dalene Reeder; Graphic Designers: Nicolas Moreau ( ), Dawn Sills; Cover Designer: Nicolas Moreau ( ); Photographs: Stéphane Ouzounoff; Models: Céline Hardy and Kevin Caesemaeker; Illustrations: Stéphane Ganneau; Printer: Versa Press Human Kinetics books are available at special discounts for bulk purchase. Special editions or book excerpts can also be created to specification. For details, contact the Special Sales Manager at Human Kinetics. Printed in the United States of America  10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The paper in this book is certified under a sustainable forestry program. Human Kinetics Website: United States: Human Kinetics P.O. Box 5076 Champaign, IL 61825-5076 800-747-4457 e-mail: [email protected] Australia: Human Kinetics 57A Price Avenue Lower Mitcham, South Australia 5062 08 8372 0999 e-mail: [email protected] Canada: Human Kinetics 475 Devonshire Road Unit 100 Windsor, ON N8Y 2L5 800-465-7301 (in Canada only) e-mail: [email protected] New Zealand: Human Kinetics P.O. Box 80 Mitcham Shopping Centre, South Australia 5062 0800 222 062 e-mail: [email protected] Europe: Human Kinetics 107 Bradford Road Stanningley Leeds LS28 6AT, United Kingdom +44 (0) 113 255 5665 e-mail: [email protected] E6969 To all the amazing coaches who inspire me each day, who gave me opportunities and then guided me: Frankie Lesage, Jane Bridge, Patrick Roux, Ezio Gamba, and Christian Derval, my father. ABD. S T N E T CON 001 Why You Need a Program to Be Successful 002 Training Fundamentals as a Starting Point 002 PRINCIPLE 1: PROGRESSION 003 PRINCIPLE 2: CONTINUITY 003 PRINCIPLE 3: VARIETY 003 PRINCIPLE 4: NONLINEARITY 003 PRINCIPLE 5: LOAD AND RECOVERY 004 What You Should Know About Physiology 004 THE ENERGY CONTINUUM 004 QUICK, ENERGY! 005 LACTATE IS AT THE HEART OF ENERGY PRODUCTION 006 WHAT ABOUT RECOVERY? 006 ADJUSTING THE INTENSITY 007 USING TIME UNDER TENSION TO ADJUST THE LOAD 008 Things That Interfere With Training 008 RULE 1: PRIORITIZE THE WORK 008 RULE 2: WORK OUT IN THE RIGHT ORDER 008 RULE 3: AVOID BAD COMBINATIONS 010 COMBINATIONS THAT WORK 011 How to Use This Book 012 The Warm-Up 012 BASIC WARM-UP REMINDERS 014 HOW TO PLAN A WARM-UP 014 Principles to Keep in Mind WHY YOU NEED A PROGRAM TO BE SUCCESSFUL 016 ESSENTIAL PARTS OF THE WARM-UP 016 (1) General Warm-Up 016 (2) Auxiliary Warm-Up 016 (3) Specific Warm-Up 016 SPECIFIC HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING ROUTINES 033 Technical Foundation 034 Foundational Exercises 034 CLEAN AND JERK 034 Clean 046 Workout - Cleans 047 Jerk 052 Workout - Jerks 053 Workout - Clean and Jerks 054 Sandbag Clean 055 Workout Sandbags 056 Tire Clean 059 Workout Tire Cleans 060 Snatch 075 Workout - Snatches 076 Kettlebell Variations 077 Workout - Kettlebell Snatches 082 Workout - Kettlebell Cleans 083 Bent-Over Row 088 Workout - Bent-Over Rows 089 Basic Athletic Exercises 089 SQUAT 089 Different Types of Squats 091 Anatomy Reminders 092 How Far Should You Go Down in a Squat? 093 Squat Mythology 093 Range of Motion and Performance 095 Squat Technique 096 Workout - Squats 097 Front Squat 099 Workout - Front Squats VII 100 Overhead Squat 102 Workout - Overhead Squats 103 Thruster 107 Workout - Thrusters 108 One-Legged (Bulgarian Split) Squat 110 Workout - One-Legged Squats 111 Pistol Squat (Air Squat on One Leg) 113 Workout - Pistol Squats 114 Workout - Mixed Squats 115 Landmine Squat 117 Landmine Obliques 119 Workouts - Landmine Squats 120 BENCH PRESS 122 Workout - Bench Presses 123 Bench Press With Dumbbells or Kettlebells 124 Workout - Bench Presses With Dumbbells or Kettlebells 125 DEADLIFT 127 Workout - Deadlifts 128 Kettlebell Swing 133 Workout - Kettlebell Swings 134 Arabesque 135 Workout - Arabesques 136 Straight-Leg Deadlift 137 Workout - Straight-Leg Deadlifts 138 Sumo Deadlift 139 Workout - Sumo Deadlifts 140 Lunge 142 Workout - Lunges 143 Bodyweight Exercises 143 FOUNDATION FOR PULL-UPS 145 Workout - Pull-Ups 146 Archer Pull-Up 147 Workout - Archer Pull-Ups 148 Open-Hand (Clapping) Pull-Up 150 Workout - Clapping Pull-Ups 153 Workout - Pull-Ups 154 Rope Climbing 157 Workout - Ropes 158 PUSH-UP 161 Workout - Push-Ups WHY YOU NEED A PROGRAM TO BE SUCCESSFUL 162 Renegades 164 Workout - Renegades 165 Burpee 166 Workout - Burpees 167 Clapping Push-Up 168 Workout - Clapping Push-Ups 169 EXPLOSIVE PUSH-UP 169 Double Knee Tuck Push-Up 171 Aztec Push-Up 172 Superman Push-Up 173 Workout - Explosive Push-Ups 174 BATTLE ROPES 179 Workout - Battle Ropes 180 DIPS 181 Workout - Dips 182 CORE EXERCISES 182 V-Up 184 Workout - V-Ups 185 Toes to Bar 186 Workout - Toes to Bars 187 Turkish Get-Up 189 Workout - Turkish Get-Ups 190 Barbell Ab Rollout 191 Workout - Barbell Ab Rollouts 192 Running 192 Running Techniques 193 A Total-Body Approach to Running Mechanics 194 PARAMETERS OF RUNNING 195 MECHANICS OF STRIDE ADAPTATION 198 Workout - Running 199 The 15-Week Modern Art Program 200 PHASE 1—FUNDAMENTALS 202 PHASE 2—STRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT 204 PHASE 3—INTENSIFY 206 PHASE 4—OPTIMIZE 209 Biibliography IX Chapter 1 WHY YOU NEED A PROGRAM TO BE SUCCESSful 002 Training Fundamentals as a Starting Point 002 003 003 003 003 Principle 1: Progression Principle 2: Continuity Principle 3: Variety Principle 4: Nonlinearity Principle 5: Load and Recovery 004 What You Should Know About Physiology 004 004 005 006 006 007 The Energy Continuum Quick, Energy! Lactate Is at the Heart of Energy Production What About Recovery? Adjusting the Intensity Using Time Under Tension to Adjust the Load 008 Things That Interfere With Training 008 008 008 010 Rule 1: Prioritize the Work Rule 2: Work Out in the Right Order Rule 3: Avoid Bad Combinations Combinations That Work 011 How to Use This Book 012 012 014 016 016 The Warm-Up Basic Warm-Up Reminders How to Plan a Warm-Up Essential Parts of the Warm-Up Specific High Intensity Training Routines 002 THE MODERN ART OF HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING The greatest asset of high intensity training is also its biggest weakness. The variety inherent in many programs is what attracts most people and holds their interest. But starting a new program that is different and innovative in many ways, using different weights, and doing a new workout daily can lead to counterproductive methods of improvisation. Changing things up, solely for the sake of change, could result in unintended consequences. Obviously, you can vary your training, but there is an art to doing so. What follows within is The Modern Art of High Intensity Training. TRAINING FUNDAMENTALS AS A STARTING POINT As in any discipline, training is based on fundamental precepts that should never be compromised for any reason, even to keep things new. The training principles follow. µµ Principle 1: Progression This principle is based not only on physiology and pedagogy but also on common sense. Some gyms and fitness clubs try to increase membership by promoting challenging but complex routines. These routines highlight a number of tools but ignore the basic concept of progression. This philosophy comes from the idea that participants are coming to the club to feel good and have fun, so the club should give them their money’s worth as quickly as possible. First, this view is contrary to the progression required in high intensity training. It separates a person’s technical development from his or her physical progress. The fundamental techniques of common high intensity training exercises are too complex to assume that anyone can master them in an instant. Instead, participants must work for several months to be able to perform exercises efficiently and without risk of injury; success can be achieved only through serious work on the basics. Specific instruction, especially for the snatch and clean and jerk exercises, is important from the start. The complexity of high intensity training is not only technical but also physiological. Workouts often require several physical attributes (sometimes these attributes are antagonistic; see the section later in the book devoted to interference in training). The most intense attributes rely on the methodical and gradual development of metabolic endurance, involving basic adaptations without which the effectiveness of future training could be compromised. Of course, you can train every part of your body, but that does not mean you should do it in a random order. Metabolic endurance, characterized by varying levels of intensity and sustained effort, WHY YOU NEED A PROGRAM TO BE SUCCESSFUL involves primary physiological adaptations that cannot be developed in other ways (or can only be developed to a lesser degree). Relevant terms here include plasma volume, stroke volume, and the force of left ventricle contraction. If these aspects are not rigorously developed using a suitable program at the beginning, they may limit future progress. Progression should be evident in any program even though people are often tempted to skip the warm-up. In most clubs, instructors are taught the importance and principles of warming up. But when you add the time required for a gradual, thorough warm-up to the time needed for a complete workout, the standard 60-minute time frame is sometimes not enough. So in practice, the warm-up is often cut short. Reactivating motor patterns gradually (indeed, training them), be­coming psychologically awake, and optimizing physiological­pa­rameters will all guarantee a successful workout (see The WarmUp section starting on page 12 for more information). A warmup with a gradual increase in weight and exercise complexity creates optimal conditions for the main workout. µµ Principle 2: Continuity Keep in mind that short-term progress is unstable. To make such progress permanent, you need to continue using consistent loads in a similar pattern over several workouts. In fact, randomly changing programs from one workout to the next means that you will never create lasting adaptations, greatly limiting your potential. Some exercise classes or training programs rely on the “instant results” fitness approach. But the risk of doing a little of everything is ultimately doing a lot of nothing. This book will show you how to create a functional training program that will deliver real and lasting results. µµ Principle 3: Variety Workout variety increases motivation by continually surprising an athlete and avoiding a boring workout routine. This principle does not necessarily have to conflict with the other principles. It can provide a perfect balance of rigor and variety. µµ Principle 4: Nonlinearity Nonlinearity is another basic principle widely associated with high intensity training, especially in the choice of exercises. A purposeful mixture of different types of exercises is arranged in a variety of sequences and has the goal of creating a novel or unusual training stress. Nonlinearity can also be applied to load and volume (sets, times, reps). Instead of the traditional use of gradually progressive blocks of training, nonlinear load and volume changes occur more often (even weekly or daily) within shorter training phases to provide more variation in the training stimulus. µµ Principle 5: Load and Recovery A good reason to take back control of your workout program is to create an optimal balance between load and recovery. Whether you are in the middle of a workout or between two workouts, you should never plan your workload without considering the recovery required. First, recovery guarantees a return to a fresh state so that the body is again able to perform intense training. Second, most of the progress that results from a workout actually occurs during recovery. You’ll find that our approach is rigorous when it comes to scheduling and managing recovery. 003 004 THE MODERN ART OF HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING What You Should Know About Physiology You probably already know that muscle is made up of different types of fibers. As a reminder, muscles include slow-twitch and fast-twitch fibers. Slow-twitch fibers are especially vascular and rich in mitochondria. Their maximum performance occurs during repetitive or prolonged contractions at below maximum intensity. In contrast, fast-twitch fibers are the most effective during intense contractions and during short bursts of maximum effort. Fast-twitch fibers can be further divided into two subcategories: fibers that can be easily fatigued and fibers that are somewhat harder to fatigue. The physiology of any effort is subject to these mechanisms of contraction. Physical performance, from a motor standpoint, depends on combining these contractions together. To do this, you need a system to convert fuel into energy. µµ The Energy Continuum Depending on the intensity and duration of a workout, the production of energy is accomplished with or without the availability of oxygen. The breakdown of glucose (which is the primary fuel) during exercise continues as the effort is prolonged (and so long as the intensity is kept low enough) by using more and more oxygen. People talk about anaerobic (without oxygen) or aerobic (with oxygen) pathways, but the mechanism is really a continuum in which the dominant pathway depends on the type of physical effort. lerated breakdown of glucose required to produce energy for intense muscle contractions results in the production of a large amount of pyruvate. The mitochondria cannot handle too much pyruvate, leading to the production of lactate. The human body is a hybrid motor propelled by several energy-producing systems that take control depending on the situation. High intensity training is interesting in this context because it oscillates between the aerobic and anaerobic systems through varying levels of intensity throughout the workout. You often hear people discuss lactate in this situation. µµ Quick, Energy! When exercise intensity increases and muscle contractions are repetitive and intense, the fast-twitch fibers produce a lot of lactate. The stored form of glucose, called glycogen, is broken down into pyruvate (which then helps the body produce energy). Pyruvate enters the mitochondria, where, when combined with oxygen, it is transformed into energy (the aerobic pathway). But as intensity increases, the fast-twitch fibers are recruited and the production of pyruvate becomes too much for the mitochondria to handle. Pyruvate builds up at the entrance to the mitochondria and is converted into lactate. This is the anaerobic pathway. This is what happens in high intensity training circuits. The intensity is high enough that the two systems function together; the acce- Why lactate is so important The efficiency with which the body transforms glucose into energy comes, in part, from the ability of the body to liberate glucose by transporting H+ protons. The production of lactate allows the proton transporters to release their cargo and pick up more quickly. So the creation of lactate helps maintain a rapid glucose breakdown flow. This mechanism helps explain why the more lactate you produce, the more capable you are of an intense effort. WHY YOU NEED A PROGRAM TO BE SUCCESSFUL µµ Lactate Is at the Heart of Energy Production As we have already explained, lactate is mostly produced by fasttwitch fibers whose mitochondrial saturation accelerates the production of pyruvate during intense exercise. This process is exactly what happens during high intensity training, which generates a lot of lactate. Extensive capacity and repetitive capacity In 2007 Aubert and Chauffin identified an important concept called repetitive capacity. Before then, energy pathways were understood to be like machines, with both power (maximum intensity produced during effort in a given pathway) and capacity (delay in the time to fatigue of the system in use, which is gradually abandoned in favor of the power of the next system). It is this second part that the authors called extensive capacity. They compare it to repetitive capacity, which is the potential for repetitive, high intensity effort within the same system. Here we are talking about enduring power, a specific requirement for high intensity training. Lactate is then captured by the neighboring slow-twitch fibers to be used for energy by the aerobic pathway. Any remaining lactate enters the bloodstream and is used as energy by the heart or by other slowtwitch fibers that become available during active recovery. For that reason, we use mostly active recovery periods during the workouts. Single sets Since about 2010, a stirring debate has been ongoing about single sets versus multiple sets. Some researchers and coaches promoted the seductive idea that a single set, pushed to failure (the moment when you cannot do another repetition) would be only slightly less effective than multiple sets and that the difference was not great enough to justify doing multiple sets (generally, the single-set myth states that the gain from doing multiple sets is only 3 percent greater). These theories echoed throughout the high intensity training community, where long, burning sets and short workouts are especially popular. Even though the majority of studies have since disproved this theory, here are a few final arguments to convince you that four is better than one. - Who would turn down a 3 percent increase in performance? - Muscle growth occurs in fatigued muscle fibers following maximum muscle tension. The causes for muscle saturation vary, and a single set can be stopped for other reasons than complete local muscular saturation (e.g., central nervous system fatigue, psychological fatigue, blood acidity, a decrease in energy reserves, and, especially, a lack of technical expertise). In other words, a set pushed to failure is effective, but these sets should not be used exclusively. Single sets should be combined with other methods for the best results. As much as possible, maximum effort should be duplicated from one set to the next, illustrating this book’s concept of multiple single sets or of a repeated single set. 005 006 THE MO...
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