10-18 lecture notes - Fluvial systems where do rivers come...

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Fluvial systems: where do rivers come from? Hydrologic cycle Evapotranspiration Precipitation Infiltration Runoff Ground water: water table rises after rain, lowers during drought Carbonic acid action dissolves limestone, producing caverns Cavern collapse creates sinkholes and a karst landscape Florida is a good place to find karst landscapes Stream Velocity and gradient As a stream flows under the influence of gravity, the water encounters resistance (friction) with the channel bed and walls. As a result, water close to the bed and banks moves slowly, while water in the central part of the flow movers faster. Changes in stream gradient (slope) affect the cross-sectional area and velocity of the stream. A drainage basin or watershed consists of a branched network of stream channels and adjacent slopes that feed a point on a channel – bounded by a drainage divide A hydrograph plots stream flow with time Peaks in the hydrograph occur after rainfall events
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