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1.Contents Table2.Review of Taiping23.1. 2nd Opium War34.2. Self Strengthening Movement - Tongzhi Restoration 1861-9445.3. Foreign Relations & Court Politics 1861-80146.4. Acceleration of Imperialism in China & Sino-Japanese War157.5. 100 Days Reform228.6. Boxer Rebellion309.7. SYS and 1010 revolution BACKGROUND3810.8. SYS continued and 1010 Revolution EVENTS4211.9. SUMMARY FALL OF QING4312.10. Potential Essay Questions441
13.Review of Taiping14.2
1. 2nd Opium War15.16.Event17.Ca/Co18.Impact of Event on 2nd Opium War19.Treaty of Nanking20.Ca21.Granted indemnity and extraterritoriality to Britain22.Opened up 5 ports in China to West23.Cession of HK 24.This didn’t satisfy British aims for 3
diplomatic/economic progress. 25.Arrow Incident (October1856)26.Ca27.Arrow boat, with British flag. Chinese got in arrested 12 people for apparently being pirates28.British saw this, asked for them back and for apology29.China gave 9 back. 30.Britain rekt four barrier forts, conflict began31.Conven. Of Beijing (1960)32.Co33.Another treaty to blow a hole in China34.Freedom of religion established in China35.Opium = legal36.Qing government was humiliated again lol people hated them more37.Taiping Rebellion rekt Qing gov too so extra hate there38.Half of China was still high and drugged up39.And of course “isolationist” China was over2. Self Strengthening Movement - Tongzhi Restoration 1861-9440.Overviewa.By the 1860s, the Qing Dynasty in China was facing collapse. The impact of Western imperialism and internal rebellions had brought China to the brink of destruction.i.The Opium Wars had seen China defeated by Britain and France whilst the Taiping Rebellion (1850-64) had led to the deaths of over 20 millionb.China tried to restore power by embarking on a series of reforms → Tongzhi Restorationi.led by a group of reforming officials within the Qing Dynasty who became collectively known as the ‘Self-Strengthening Movement’c.The Tongzhi Restoration ultimately failed to stop the decline of the Qing Dynasty, but it did give the Qing another 50 years of rule until the 1911 Revolution41.Impacts of Western Penetration - External Invasion4
a.Defeats in the two Anglo-Chinese Wars had great effects to survive and to defend herself against further foreign aggression, China had to carry out reformsi.China had to admit western military superiority, so they strengthened on western model. b.Tributary system had ended, and China’s sovereignty was affected by the unequal treaty terms. c.Missionary activities and spread of western idea, such as equality and liberalism weakened traditional ideas, that was Confucianism.d.Some suggested learning western science and technology to avoid aggression42.Impacts of Internal Rebellion - Taipinga.Taiping Rebellion was very destructive → spread into many parts of Chinab.Its programmes and Christian ideology threatened Confucian values and its initial success threatened the Qing Dynastyc.Its suppression, Chinese regional officials like Zeng Guofan and Li Hongzhang rose to power. They also used western weapons in defeating