History China Notes.docx - 1 Contents Table 2 Review of Taiping 3 1 2nd Opium War 4 2 Self Strengthening Movement Tongzhi Restoration 1861-94 5 3

History China Notes.docx - 1 Contents Table 2 Review of...

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1. Contents Table 2. Review of Taiping 2 3. 1. 2nd Opium War 3 4. 2. Self Strengthening Movement - Tongzhi Restoration 1861-94 4 5. 3. Foreign Relations & Court Politics 1861-80 14 6. 4. Acceleration of Imperialism in China & Sino-Japanese War 15 7. 5. 100 Days Reform 22 8. 6. Boxer Rebellion 30 9. 7. SYS and 1010 revolution BACKGROUND 38 10. 8. SYS continued and 1010 Revolution EVENTS 42 11. 9. SUMMARY FALL OF QING 43 12. 10. Potential Essay Questions 44 1
13. Review of Taiping 14. 2
1. 2nd Opium War 15. 16. Event 17. Ca/ C o 18. Impact of Event on 2nd Opium War 19. Treaty of Nan king 20. Ca 21. Granted indemnity and extraterritoriality to Britain 22. Opened up 5 ports in China to West 23. Cession of HK 24. This didn’t satisfy British aims for 3
diplomatic/economic progress. 25. Arrow Incid ent (Oct ober 185 6) 26. Ca 27. Arrow boat, with British flag. Chinese got in arrested 12 people for apparently being pirates 28. British saw this, asked for them back and for apology 29. China gave 9 back. 30. Britain rekt four barrier forts, conflict began 31. Conven . Of Beiji ng (196 0) 32. Co 33. Another treaty to blow a hole in China 34. Freedom of religion established in China 35. Opium = legal 36. Qing government was humiliated again lol people hated them more 37. Taiping Rebellion rekt Qing gov too so extra hate there 38. Half of China was still high and drugged up 39. And of course “isolationist” China was over 2. Self Strengthening Movement - Tongzhi Restoration 1861-94 40.Overview a. By the 1860s, the Qing Dynasty in China was facing collapse. The impact of Western imperialism and internal rebellions had brought China to the brink of destruction. i. The Opium Wars had seen China defeated by Britain and France whilst the Taiping Rebellion (1850-64) had led to the deaths of over 20 million b. China tried to restore power by embarking on a series of reforms → Tongzhi Restoration i. led by a group of reforming officials within the Qing Dynasty who became collectively known as the ‘Self-Strengthening Movement’ c. The Tongzhi Restoration ultimately failed to stop the decline of the Qing Dynasty, but it did give the Qing another 50 years of rule until the 1911 Revolution 41.Impacts of Western Penetration - External Invasion 4
a. Defeats in the two Anglo-Chinese Wars had great effects to survive and to defend herself against further foreign aggression, China had to carry out reforms i. China had to admit western military superiority, so they strengthened on western model. b. Tributary system had ended, and China’s sovereignty was affected by the unequal treaty terms. c. Missionary activities and spread of western idea, such as equality and liberalism weakened traditional ideas, that was Confucianism. d. Some suggested learning western science and technology to avoid aggression 42.Impacts of Internal Rebellion - Taiping a. Taiping Rebellion was very destructive → spread into many parts of China b. Its programmes and Christian ideology threatened Confucian values and its initial success threatened the Qing Dynasty c. Its suppression, Chinese regional officials like Zeng Guofan and Li Hongzhang rose to power. They also used western weapons in defeating

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