bio unit 3 - Bio 171 Notes Unit 3 Classical Taxonomy the...

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Bio 171 Notes - Unit 3 Classical Taxonomy - the describing and naming of species and higher taxonomic groups. Carolus Linnaeus is the father of taxonomy. Binomial nomenclature - system of two part names (ex. Homo sapiens "wise man") Hierarchical classification: 1) Domain 2) Kingdom 3) Phylum 4) Class 5) Order 6) Family 7) Genus 8) Species Classification: a way of organizing the diversity of living organisms. Phylogenetic Systematics: a classification based on evolutionary relationships which demonstrates the sequence of speciation events. Modern Systematists attempt to classify species and infer evolutionary relationships among species. Phylogeny : - represents the branching pattern of species lineages via the process of speciation. - a hypothesis about the evolutionary history of a group. (not known with certainty, used with data). Phylogenetic tree: a graphical representation of this history, which describes the sequence of speciation events .
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Ancestral (plesiomorphic) characteristics - biochemical pathways inherited from a common ancestor. (ex. DNA Replication and protein synthesis) (ex. leaves, roots, stems) . Derived (apomorphic) characteristics - subsequent evolutionary innovations are derived characteristics and account for the differences among organisms (ex. a flower). - Derived characteristic = characteristic of a species that is not shared by other ex. The three pandemic flu viruses we talked about shared 10 important mutations (probably ancestral/plesiomorphic characteristics), but the most recent of the three - strains probably has mutations that it alone gained due to its own evolution . (derived/apomorphic characteristics). Reading Phylogenetic Trees branches: represents the populations. nodes: shows where ancestral groups split into descendant groups. taxon: is any named group of organisms. sister taxa: adjacent branches. polytomy: a node where more than two descendant groups branch off. tips: are branch endpoints and represent living groups or a group's end in extinction. Phylogenetic Biology: A fusion of systematics with evolutionary biology (1980-90's). DATA USED TO CONSTRUCT PHYLOGENIES: fossils, morphology, DNA sequence data, chromosomal arrangements, development, and behavior. monophyletic group - a group that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants and are defined by shared derived characters (ex. a flower) .
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derived character: an evolutionary novelty unique to a group . character: any feature that a taxon possesses . homology: similarity due to inheritance from a common ancestor. analogy: similarity due to independent (convergent) evolution; similar selection pressures imposed by similar environments lead to similar structures in two different, not closely related , evolutionary lineages (ex. dorsal fins of sharks and whales are analogous characters, not homologous characters).
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