1 - Contents CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Calculus Velocity...

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CHAPTER 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Contents Introduction to Calculus Velocity and Distance Calculus Without Limits The Velocity at an Instant Circular Motion A Review of Trigonometry A Thousand Points of Light Computing in Calculus Derivatives The Derivative of a Function Powers and Polynomials The Slope and the Tangent Line Derivative of the Sine and Cosine The Product and Quotient and Power Rules Limits Continuous Functions Applications of the Derivative Linear Approximation Maximum and Minimum Problems Second Derivatives: Minimum vs. Maximum Graphs Ellipses, Parabolas, and Hyperbolas Iterations x, + , = F(x,) Newton's Method and Chaos The Mean Value Theorem and l'H8pital's Rule
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CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Calculus 1.4 Velocity and Distance The right way to begin a calculus book is with calculus. This chapter will jump directly into the two problems that the subject was invented to solve. You will see what the questions are, and you will see an important part of the answer. There are plenty of good things left for the other chapters, so why not get started? The book begins with an example that is familiar to everybody who drives a car. It is calculus in action-the driver sees it happening. The example is the relation between the speedometer and the odometer. One measures the speed (or velocity); the other measures the distance traveled. We will write v for the velocity, and f for how far the car has gone. The two instruments sit together on the dashboard: Fig. 1.1 Velocity v and total distance f (at one instant of time). Notice that the units of measurement are different for v and f. The distance f is measured in kilometers or miles (it is easier to say miles). The velocity v is measured in km/hr or miles per hour. A unit of time enters the velocity but not the distance. Every formula to compute v from f will have f divided by time. The central question of calculus is the relation between v f.
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--- 1 Introduction to Calculus Can you find v if you know f, and vice versa, and how? If we know the velocity over the whole history of the car, we should be able to compute the total distance traveled. In other words, if the speedometer record is complete but the odometer is missing, its information could be recovered. One way to do it (without calculus) is to put in a new odometer and drive the car all over again at the right speeds. That seems like a hard way; calculus may be easier. But the point is that the information is there. If we know everything about v, there must be a method to find f. What happens in the opposite direction, when f is known? If you have a complete record of distance, could you recover the complete velocity? In principle you could drive the car, repeat the history, and read off the speed. Again there must be a better way.
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1 - Contents CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Calculus Velocity...

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