8 - Contents CHAPTER 4 The Chain Rule Derivatives by the...

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CHAPTER 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 CHAPTER 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 CHAPTER 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 CHAPTER 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 CHAPTER 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Contents The Chain Rule Derivatives by the Chain Rule Implicit Differentiation and Related Rates Inverse Functions and Their Derivatives Inverses of Trigonometric Functions Integrals The Idea of the Integral 177 Antiderivatives 182 Summation vs. Integration 187 Indefinite Integrals and Substitutions 195 The Definite Integral 201 Properties of the Integral and the Average Value 206 The Fundamental Theorem and Its Consequences 213 Numerical Integration 220 Exponentials and Logarithms An Overview 228 The Exponential ex 236 Growth and Decay in Science and Economics 242 252 Separable Equations Including the Logistic Equation 259 Powers Instead of Exponentials 267 Hyperbolic Functions 277 Techniques of Integration Integration by Parts Trigonometric Integrals Trigonometric Substitutions Partial Fractions Improper Integrals Applications of the Integral Areas and Volumes by Slices Length of a Plane Curve Area of a Surface of Revolution Probability and Calculus Masses and Moments 8.6 Force, Work, and Energy
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CHAPTER 8 Applications of the Integral We are experts in one application of the integral-to find the area under a curve. The curve is the graph of y = v(x), extending from x = a at the left to x = b at the right. The area between the curve and the x axis is the definite integral. I think of that integral in the following way. The region is made up of thin strips. Their width is dx and their height is v(x). The area of a strip is v(x) times dx. The area of all the strips is 1: v(x) dx. Strictly speaking, the area of one strip is meaningless-genuine rectangles have width Ax. My point is that the picture of thin strips gives the correct approach. We know what function to integrate (from the picture). We also know how (from this course or a calculator). The new applications to volume and length and surface area cut up the region in new ways. Again the small pieces tell the story. In this chapter, what to integrate is more important than how. 8.1 Areas and Volumes by Slices This section starts with areas between curves. Then it moves to volumes, where the strips become slices. We are weighing a loaf of bread by adding the weights of the slices. The discussion is dominated by examples and figures-the theory is minimal. The real problem is to set up the right integral. At the end we look at a different way of cutting up volumes, into thin shells. All formulas are collected into ajnal table. Figure 8.1 shows the area between two curves. The upper curve is the graph of y = v(x). The lower curve is the graph of y = w(x). The strip height is v(x) - w(x), from one curve down to the other. The width is dx (speaking informally again). The total area is the integral of "top minus bottom": area between two curves = [v(x) - w (x)] dx.
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8 - Contents CHAPTER 4 The Chain Rule Derivatives by the...

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