Final Exam Review - Identification Terms 22nd Amendment...

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Identification Terms 22 nd Amendment - sets the term limit of Presidency as 2 terms or 10 years adopted in 1951. Limits power of executive branch and sets structure. Passed due to FDR Amicus Curiae - “friend of the court” a third party to a lawsuit who files a legal brief for the purpose of raising additional points of view in an attempt to influence a court’s decision. Shows that judicial branch can really be affected and lobbied. Used by interest groups. Appellate jurisdiction - power invested in an appellate court to review and/or revise the decision of a lower court. Check and balance within judicial branch. Budget deficit - when the government spends more money then takes in. Strength of the dollar decreases. Deficit spending brought the U.S. out of the Great Depression. Bush Doctrine - policy advocated by Pres Bush of using preemptive military action against a perceived threat to U.S. interests. Shows how the Exec. Branch is ever increasing and overstepping its boundaries. Citizen diplomat - an individual who tries to put his hand in foreign policy. Fredrick Douglas traveled abroad to inform people on slavery. Not normally a person in government but someone outside of government. Cloture - mechanism requiring sixty senators to vote to cut off debate. Eliminates a single party from wasting time on an issue and keeps the lawmaking process rolling. Collective security - concept that peace would be secured if all countries collectively opposed any country that invaded another. Theory behind the creation of the United Nations and the League of Nations. Commander-in-Chief - U.S. President is the commander of the nation’s military forces. Congressional Budget Office - a federal agency within the legislative branch. Analyzes the presidents budget and economic projections. Gives non-partisan analysis of budget. Deregulation - a reduction in market controls (such as price fixing, subsidies, or controls on who can enter a field) in favor of market-based competition. Competition will increase and prices will be lowered. Descriptive representation - The idea that candidates in democratic elections should be elected to represent ethnic and gender constituencies, as well as other minority interest groups, rather than the population at large. According to this idea, an elected body should resemble a representative sample of the voters they are meant to represent concerning outward characteristics—a constituency of 50% women and 20% blacks, for example, should have 50% female and 20% black legislators.
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Discount rate- the rate of interest at which member banks can borrow money from their regional Federal Reserve Bank. Going against laissez-faire contributes to government regulation of economy. Expands economic activity. Executive agreement- formal government agreement entered into by the president that doe not require the advice and consent of the U.S. Senate. Expands executive power and eliminates one of the checks on the executive branch.
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