FIRST EXAM REVIEW! - 527's nonprofit and unregulated...

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527’s – nonprofit and unregulated interest groups that focus on specific causes or policy positions and attempt to influence voters. Can’t directly engage in advocacy but they can advocate on behalf of political issues call sham issue ads. Agenda Setting – the process of forming the list of issues to be addressed by the govt. Not all items presented to the Congress can be addressed so many must be weeded out and have the list of issues formed. “All Deliberate Speed” – it was an enforcement issue as a result of the second Brown v. Board of Education case. The ruling called for the desegregation of schools in the south but the south was reluctant to carrying out this ruling. So President Eisenhower sent federal troop down to a high school in Little Rock, Arkansas to help enforce the desegregation of schools. Articles of Confederation – compact among the 13 original states that was the basis of the govt. The type of govt. was a confederation, where power is derived from the states. There is a natl govt, each state has authority over its territories, vote in 9 states to pass anything. There is a loose “league of friendship.” Bandwagon Effect – as a result of polls, new supporters turn toward a candidate they now favor. Barron v Baltimore – The Bill of Rights only limited the actions of the U.S. govt and not those of the states. However the 14 th Amendment made it applicable to the states with the due process clause which later brought out the incorporation doctrine. Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act – outlaws unlimited and unregulated contributions to parties and limits the amount that individuals can give to candidates. It’s an attempt to prevent any single group from gaining too much influence. Black Nationalism – Better educated, wealthier blacks support community nationalism in which blacks create and manage communities where they can dominate. Less educated blacks support separatist nationalism in which they reject the idea of inclusion in the white nation, and instead seek to create an entirely new homeland. Both groups agree that whites maintain superiority and that Africa is a special place. Block Grants – broad grants with few strings attached; given to states by the federal government for specified activities. Introduced by Reagan, he introduced a huge cut in taxes and grants and imposed his new ideological block grant system. Categorical Grants – grants which Congress appropriates funds for a specific purpose. These were the most common type of grant until the “Reagan Era”, when Reagan promised to return power to the states. Civil Liberties – personal guarantees and freedoms that the federal government cannot abridge by law, constitution, or judicial interpretation.
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Civil Rights – government-protected rights of individuals against discriminatory treatment by governments based on race, origin. Blacks not given these till 1964, and there are still struggles to have the same opportunities as others. Strove for freedom and equality under the law.
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