Kalat Chap 6.1 - Chapter 6 Vision Visual Coding and the...

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Chapter 6 Vision
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2 Visual Coding and the Retina Senses have specialized receptors Receptors for vision sensitive to light Receptors “transduce” (convert) energy into electrochemical patterns
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3 Visual Coding and the Retina Receptor Potential Local depolarization or hyperpolarization of membrane Strength determines how much excitation or inhibition is sent to next neuron
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4 Visual Coding and the Retina Law of Specific Nerve Energies Nerve always conveys same type of information to brain “Labeled line” Sensory coding determined by which neurons are active
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5 Fig. 6-1, p. 153
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6 Fig. 6-15, p. 167
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7 Visual Coding and the Retina Amacrine Cells Control ability of ganglion cells to respond to shapes, movements, or other specific aspects of visual stimuli
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8 Fig. 6-2, p. 154
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9 Visual Coding and the Retina Macula Center of human retina Fovea Central portion of macula Allows for acute and detailed vision High receptor density Nearly free of ganglion axons and blood vessels
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10 Visual Coding and the Retina Foveal Receptors Wired to single bipolar cell and single ganglion cell (midget ganglion cell) Direct line to brain Increased visual acuity
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11 Visual Coding and the Retina Receptors Outside Fovea Increased number of receptors converge into ganglion and bipolar cells Decreased acuity Increased vision under low-light conditions
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12
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13 Visual Coding and the Retina Vertebrate Photoreceptors Rods Abundant in periphery Respond to faint light 120 million per retina Cones Abundant in fovea Color vision High acuity 6 million per retina
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14 Fig. 6-6, p. 156
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15 Visual Coding and the Retina Photopigments Contained by both rods and cones Release energy when struck by light 11-cis-retinal bound to proteins called opsins Light energy converts 11-cis-retinal quickly into all-trans-retinal Light is absorbed and energy is released
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16 Visual Coding and the Retina
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17 Fig. 6-7, p. 157
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18 Visual Coding and the Retina Trichromatic Theory Color perception dependent on relative rates of response by three kinds of cones Each cone maximally sensitive to different wavelengths More intense light increases brightness of color but does not change ratio and thus does not change perception of color itself
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19 Fig. 6-8, p. 158
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