Kalat Chap 13.1 - Chapter 13 Biology of Learning and Memory...

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Chapter 13: Biology of Learning and Memory
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2 W. W. Norton
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3 Learning, Memory and Amnesia Early thoughts about memory Physical changes occur when we learn Connections grow between areas
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4 Learning, Memory and Amnesia Pavlovian or Classical Conditioning Pairing two stimuli changes response Conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Automatically generates unconditioned response (UCR) After several pairings, response elicited by CS without UCS, which is known as a conditioned response (CR) Argued that conditioning strengthened connections between CS and UCS centers
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5 Learning, Memory and Amnesia Operant Conditioning Responses followed by reinforcement or punishment that strengthen or weaken behavior Reinforcers increase probability that response will occur again Punishments decrease probability that response will occur again
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6 Learning, Memory and Amnesia Lashley Searched for engrams, or physical representations of what had been learned Disrupted connections between brain areas to disrupt abilities to learn Learning and memory did not depend on connections across cortex Learning not dependant on single cortical area
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7 Learning, Memory and Amnesia Classical conditioning engram in cerebellum During conditioning, changes occur in cells of lateral interpositus nucleus (LIP) of cerebellum If LIP suppressed, subject display no learning As suppression fades, animal learn as if no previous training Suppression of red nucleus results in no learning, but when suppression fades, animals perform as if they did previously learn
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8 Fig. 13-4, p. 388
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9 Learning, Memory and Amnesia Hebb proposed different types of memory Short-term Memory Long-term Memory
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10 Learning, Memory and Amnesia Short Term Memory Limited Capacity Memories fade without rehearsal Retrieval cues not effective Long Term Memory Unlimited Capacity Memories persist Retrieval cues work
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11 Learning, Memory and Amnesia Some memories do not qualify as distinctly short-term or long-term Working Memory Alternative to short-term memory Temporary storage of information to actively attend to it and work on it
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12 Learning, Memory and Amnesia Working Memory Components Phonological Loop – Auditory input Visuospatial Sketchpad – Visual input Central Executive – Directs attention and determines which items to store
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